Features of action of ultraviolet radiation on the human body

August 12, 2017 17:50 | Nursing

Compared with infrared ultraviolet radiation has on the human body is very complex operation, which is composed of interconnected biophysical, humoral and neuro-reflex effects.When exposed to UV radiation of human body mainly developed biophysical processes, with the main of which is manifested in the appearance of the photoelectric effect.As a result, such an effect is a change in the electronic structure of atoms and molecules, and finally, the electrical properties of the human body and its cells colloids that certain way affects their dispersibility.Humoral UV action mechanism is related to its influence on the protein substance of the human body, in particular ultraviolet radiation (medicinally permissible only doses) protein denaturation occurs, i.e.loss of their ability to swell, dissolve in water and dilute salt solutions;moreover, coagulation of protein observed in human tissues.Next the coagulated protein relatively easily cleaved by enzymes that are generated in the human body, which leads to

the appearance of cleavage products of protein in the irradiated pathological focus, among which are the substances with high biological activity, such as histamine, acetylcholine, biogenic amines and others. It is well knownhistamine that is active potent stimulator of smooth muscle activity of the abdominal cavity, exerts vasodilating effect, increases the secretion of gastric glands, development of hydrochloric acid and pepsin.Furthermore, histamine is related to the exchange of adrenaline in the human body has a certain influence on the exchange of glucocorticoids and catecholamines, improves the activity of the enzyme histaminase.Exemption under the influence of ultraviolet radiation of physiologically active substances of the skin closely links the humoral mechanism of action with the neuro-reflex, because these substances are actively involved in the transmission of nerve excitation.

In the second half of the XX century.in the Soviet Union special studies on the effect of ultraviolet radiation on the human body have been carried out, during which the following has been established:

• UV radiation as a whole is an essential factor of the environment, which is involved in the regulation of vitamin balance and metabolic processes of the human body;

• by irradiation of skin with ultraviolet rays with wavelengths from 302 to 297 nm which is in the body vitamin D (7-dehydrocholesterol) is converted into vitamin D 3, which is to enroll in the blood contributes to the mobilization of inorganic phosphorus, the revitalization of the enzyme phosphatase.The absence of vitamin D reduces the possibility of involvement in a number phosphatase reactions associated with calcium-phosphorus exchange.

is well known that low calcium levels in the body (in the bone) causes a decrease in the mechanical strength of bones, susceptibility to fractures (ie developing osteoporosis - a scourge of children and the elderly), and in young children developing rickets.In addition, the lack of calcium in the blood vessel walls leads to increased permeability and a tendency to exudative reactions (this conclusion was made by the Soviet scientist AP Parfenov);

• when ultraviolet disrupted failure of various organs and systems, which leads to the appearance of lethargy, weakness, easy fatigue, decreased muscle performance, breach of vitamin balance not only of vitamin D, and vitamin C, as a result may develop anemia.The sharp decline in immune-biological processes in this phenomenon is the cause of reduced resistance of the human body, especially to colds and infectious diseases;

• under the influence of ultraviolet radiation changes the ratio of protein fractions of blood serum, increased glycogen content in the liver and muscles;

• UV radiation alters the acid-base balance of blood: after a short acidosis occurs longer alkalosis.Furthermore, changing the content of proteolytic enzymes catalase and reduced maintenance;

• ultraviolet radiation affects the cardiovascular system.For example, heavy exposure of the skin in the area of ​​erythema causes increased heart rate and increase in cardiac output, blood pressure reduction.

Effect of ultraviolet radiation on blood pressure is due to changes in the autonomic nervous system and the appearance of blood histamine and histamine-products that cause blood vessels to dilate.But with respect to duration of irradiation occurs the second phase - high blood pressure, so if you follow the procedure strictly conform to the permissible dose of ultraviolet radiation;

• UV exposure in certain doses has a desensitizing effect, which is associated with some changes in the functional state of the nervous and endocrine systems, metabolism.

Scientists special techniques desensitizing therapy by applying ultraviolet radiation to treat a number of diseases in the etiology and pathogenesis of which plays a significant role allergic component (such as bronchial asthma, rheumatism, allergic rhinitis, etc.) Have been developed in these years.Typically, desensitizing effect appears only when multiple exposures, or in the case of sufficiently intense erythema dosage (Erie dark dose - the degree of ultraviolet radiation, causing the appearance of a kind of persistent redness of the skin in the area of ​​pathological focus);

• ultraviolet irradiation of the skin at the site of action within 2-4 hours there is persistent redness with clearly defined edges - UV erythema, which lasts from 12 hours to several days.In the event of erythema in the skin are changes that are typical of inflammation:. Dilation of the capillaries and the overflow of blood, increased capillary permeability, etc. If erythema exposure to ultraviolet rays with wavelengths from 257 to 297 nm in a period of development of erythema in the pathological focus changes occur in the endingsthe sensory nerves of the skin, with marked hypertrophy and proliferation of skin nerve cells, decreases the sensitivity with which is associated analgesic effect of ultraviolet radiation.At the same physical conditions, the impact on the nature of the pathological focus erythema depends on many individual characteristics of the organism as a whole.Erythemal reaction of the skin depends on the age, the function of the endocrine glands, localization effects on the pathological processes in the human body.As demonstrated by long-standing practice of using UV radiation for therapeutic purposes, facial skin is the most sensitive stomach, back, less sensitive - limb skin.Furthermore, it was observed that the sensitivity of the skin to ultraviolet radiation increases sharply in exudative diathesis, bronchial asthma and various allergic diseases.The sharp decrease in skin sensitivity in similar effects observed in malnutrition, infectious diseases.

In clinical studies it was observed that on the second day at the moment of maximum development of erythema occurred necrobiosis and necrosis of most of the cells of the epidermis, to the 3-4 th day of the epidermis thickens due to the young cells of the basal layer.By the 7-9-th day of erythema gradually disappeared (subject to the termination of the irradiation), began peeling due to cell death of the surface layers of the skin and replace them with new ones.The same period of time at the site of erythema occurred pigmentation, which is a colorant deposition of melanin in the basal cells of the skin.

Clinical observation of UFO procedures have shown that in some cases the formation of pigment possible with repeated exposures, and for no apparent prior erythema.

prominent Soviet scientist APParfenov suggested that a good tan on the human body is an indicator of health body's defenses, including the sympathetic-adrenal, and this is the basis of the quenching action of ultraviolet radiation.

Clinical studies have shown that the formation of erythematous skin reactions accompanied by complex biological processes, and a change in gas exchange activity of various enzymes not only in skin, but also in the body as a whole.From the foregoing it can be concluded that the conduct of the treatment of a pathological focus in the human body with the use of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) requires a very deliberate and responsible approach to the appointment of the relevant procedures, including mandatory compliance with permissible doses effects on the pathological lesions.

In clinical studies on the use in the treatment of various diseases of short ultraviolet (EUV) is well expressed bactericidal effect was found.The bactericidal action is due to the influence of their KUF a nuclear substance of the microorganism cells.Upon absorption of radiant energy microbial cells which occurs in nucleic acid metabolic disturbance that leads to cell death.Microorganisms are thus stimulation stage, oppression and withering away.

EUV direct bactericidal action is used in medicine for therapeutic purposes only at the surface location of microorganisms, in particular bacteria.The bactericidal action of this factor in the tissues of the human body is made up of a possible direct effect of their (KUF) on bacteria and especially changes in the properties of fabrics, in which the bacteria are (in the form of a shift to the acid side of the pH, increasing the phagocytic activity of leukocytes, and others.), Helping to delaybacterial growth and death.

equipment, used in the treatment of various diseases and their prevention with the use of ultraviolet radiation (UVR)

The equipment for UFO procedures most commonly used arc mercury-quartz lamp (TAA) of high pressure, which is a short (relatively) tube made of quartz glass(quartz glass transmits ultraviolet rays, and window glass of a simple delay) filled with argon gas and a small amount of mercury.are metal electrodes at both ends of the tube to which electric current is applied, resulting in a glow discharge occurs in argon, an inert gas;mercury evaporates resulting in its vapor generated ultraviolet radiation.DPT lamps produce a wide range of UVR with wavelengths from 250 to 350 nm.Also DPT lamps in the equipment to use special procedures UFO erythematous lamps that appearance does not differ from conventional fluorescent lamps daylight;erythematous lamp used for ultraviolet irradiation and radiation give a narrow range around 297 nm.

in physical therapy clinics and offices offices specialized clinics for UFO procedures, use the following equipment:

• irradiator Mercury quartz table UCN-11 (portable).This device has a reflector at the front and the lamp DRT-230 (230 W), is turned on by the cord and plug into the grid with a voltage of 220 V. The UCN-11 is equipped with a metal housing, which is attached to the base of the four locks, hinges.To transfer this unit to the patient's bedside to the body attached to the handle;

• irradiator Mercury quartz on a tripod JWC-21, in structure almost similar to the UCN-11 is characterized by the presence of the lamp twice the power - DRT-400 (400 W), and wheels at the base of the stand to move it on the floor within the physiotherapyclassrooms or offices during the UFO procedures;

• nasopharynx illuminator for ENT-1 having a lamp DRT-230 (230 W), designed for the simultaneous adoption of the UVI procedure four patients, each of which is separated from the next by special shutters, reinforced with metal brackets;

• irradiators majachnye type UGD-3 and UGD-2.The first of them is equipped with a lamp D RT-1 000 (1 000 watts) is designed for procedures UFO whole group of adult patients;the second - for the procedures with a group of children.These feeds have a massive base, which houses the electrical power supply unit, and the upright on the upper part of the lamp is fixed, and the top is covered with a protective cap.Base irradiators based on wheels that allows during procedures to move across the floor or cabinet office.Power is provided from the network irradiators 220 W. UGD-3 is larger than the EHD-2, otherwise they are identical;

• irradiators LKUF-3 and 5-OKUF for shortwave ultraviolet irradiation sources are predominantly (85%) of short ultraviolet rays with a wavelength of 254 nm.Average biodozy ensured by UFO from a distance of 20-25 cm for 3-4 minutes.These feeds are designed for exposure of mucous membranes in the mouth, throat and nose;

• bactericidal irradiators to perform procedures UFO: CCB-15, CCU 30, CCU-Z0P equipped with low pressure mercury lamp, which provides short-wave ultraviolet rays have a strong bactericidal action.Bactericidal mercury lamp has the form of a tube made of a special glass uviol.Ultraviolet radiation germicidal irradiators at 80/6 consists of short rays with a wavelength of 253.7 nm.To perform the procedures used UFO bactericidal irradiators: mobile, wall and suspension (or ceiling).Wall bactericidal irradiator is designed for handling UFO space of 30 m with the procedure lasts 1 hour under irradiation outdoor lamps and 8 hours - at closed (with continuous operation of the irradiator condition).This illuminator is attached to the wall at a height of 2-2.3 m above the floor, but after every 2-3 hours of operation, it must be switched off at 1-1.5 hours to reduce the concentration of ozone in the air generated by burning germicidal lamps.

mobile bactericidal irradiator is designed for UFO for 30 minutes, room volume of 100 m3.

When any bactericidal irradiator must be sure to protect your eyes by wearing special glasses- "canned" with dark lenses (such glasses protect the eyes from light from all sides).After each patient's glasses cleaned with a damp swab dipped in rubbing alcohol.In addition, to prevent burning when the MSS of procedures to be protected and exposed parts of the body, especially when in the study included with a mercury quartz irradiator;

• UV irradiator mobile longwave (erythema), is used for group UFO procedures (adults and children) in order to prevent (hardening).This illuminator generates ultraviolet rays 247 nm in length, and have zagarnym antirachitic action.This irradiator comprises a base and an upper disc coupled to base the booming tubular uprights.At the very bottom are the elements of a circuit diagram.Between the base and the top plate in special cartridges circumferentially disposed erythemal nine lamps.Furthermore, in the center of the base and the top disc mounted incandescent bulbs with 300 watts.The total power consumed by the power illuminator erythematous, is 1,300 watts.The irradiator, if necessary, easily moves on wheels within the premises (office or department);

• LHE bath BC-03 with erythemal lamps uviol EVM EVM-15 and-30 (power of 15 W and 30) are designed for ultraviolet irradiation procedures individually.These lamps produce ultraviolet radiation with a maximum at 313 nm spectral line, which is created by the phosphor layer coated on the inner surface of the tube (bulb).Bath VS-03 combined and designed for trunk and extremities irradiation with ultraviolet rays in erythema doses.The surface of the frame VS-03 bath is a heat reflecting metallized fabric.In the same bath can be installed and the usual incandescent lamps for simple thermal procedures.

As shown by clinical studies, erythema dose of ultraviolet radiation cause in humans the development of processes aimed at desensitization.In general, ultraviolet erythema widely used in clinical practice in various diseases.