One of the most common groups of infectious diseases are droplet infection.These include SARS, influenza, chicken pox, whooping cough, measles, rubella, diphtheria, meningococcal infection, and others. Acute respiratory viral infection combines disease, the main route of infection which is considered to be the air.One form of SARS, which manifests a high temperature in the patient (38-40 ° C), strong fever, joint pain, a flu.The care of the patient with the disease are considered to be the main event at a fever and help the implementation of doctor appointments (the introduction of antiviral drugs and detoxification).An important event is the isolation of the patient at home in a separate room, and in severe cases, the flu - in the hospital.
Another form of SARS is chickenpox , which refers to a severe infectious diseases.The main manifestations of this disease are a rash, fever, painful itching.Patients who have had chicken pox, get proof lifelong immunity to the disease.Care for these patients is r
Pertussis - infectious disease manifested paroxysmal cough.With this disease affects mostly infants.Pertussis occurs in several stages.Care in this case includes a number of doctor appointments (immunoglobulin against whooping cough, antibacterial agents, feed oxygen pillows) and a conversation with the parents of the sick children.A nurse must inform them of the need for regular walks, the appropriate content of the room in which there is a child (the need for sufficient airing, systematic wet cleaning).Particular attention is given to the patient nutrition, which should be sufficient to vitamin content.
Measles - a viral disease characterized by expression of catarrhal symptoms, ocular inflammation device, the appearance of certain types of rashes and spots.Measles - is a dangerous disease.Today, doctors warn about the formation of allergy - a immunodeficiency condition, which causes the development of inflammation of the lungs, bronchi, intestines and brain.Treatment and care of patients with measles are carried home.In severe disease the patient is isolated in a box of infectious hospital.Care is in compliance with bed rest and prevention of blinding the eyes of the world.Also, great attention is paid to the implementation of doctor's appointments.Measles patient shows means forming a resistance to the pathogen, detoxification drugs, antibiotics, and advanced drinking regime.
Rubella - droplet infection, suggesting pathogen transmission from mother to fetus.The virus of this disease is particularly unfavorable for pregnant women, because destroying newly formed tissue and fetal organs.The main symptoms are pain in the lymph nodes of the neck and nape of the neck, slight catarrhal symptoms and characteristic rash.Rubella does not imply special treatment, and care activities are reduced to the isolation of the patient from the workforce and aid in fever.
Diphtheria - severe disease characterized by the formation of plaque on the tonsils fibrinous type and subsequently the development as a complication of diphtheria croup.The main and urgent medical measures after the diagnosis of diphtheria is a fractional introduction of diphtheria serum.Then the patient must be monitored in terms of implementation of doctor's appointments - mode limit negative emotions and sanitary treatment of the oral cavity.At the height of the disease, the presence of difficulties in swallowing food the nurse should carry out a patient tube feeding.During the recovery period, when liquidated fever and diphtheria film, the patient can switch to a simple feeding.
Meningococcal disease - severe infection, characterized by various manifestations.One form of this disease is a nasopharyngitis, manifested by pain in the throat, redness of the mouth and rhinitis.Meningococcemia manifested acute intoxication, a rash all over the body and the syndrome of a lesion of the adrenal glands.Purulent meningitis characterized by severe fever, lesions of blood vessels and the brain in childhood - the development of meningeal signs.Basic principles of treatment of these diseases include antibacterial and detoxication therapy.Care of patients with meningococcal infection involves providing heat to the patient, purgation, oral treatment of the mouth and skin.An important element of the activities of a nurse is considered the prevention of pressure ulcers.A patient with this pathology is necessary to ensure free breathing tube patency, monitor emptying of the bladder and intestine and enter the catheter into the bladder when needed.
Mumps (Mumps) - a disease characterized by damage to the endocrine glands.The main manifestations of the disease are pain during eating and increase the size of the affected gland.Treatment and activities for the care of patients with mumps are carried out at home.The doctor assigns thermal procedures on the damaged organ.
to intestinal infections include acute nature of the disease, which is considered the leading symptom dyspepsia.According to the cause of the acute intestinal infections are divided into two types.The first type is caused by pathogens - is dysentery, cholera and other diseases.The second type is caused by Clostridium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and other micro-organisms, which are called opportunistic.The main route of infection of intestinal infection is fecal-oral.
leading a group of signs of acute intestinal infections are severe intoxication, inflammation of the digestive system, dehydration.The main treatment of acute intestinal infections involves the use of bacteriophages, antibiotics, detoxification activities.
acute intestinal diseases are typhoid and paratyphoid A and B. main symptoms of these diseases are caused by lesions of the central nervous system, thermoregulation unit, splenomegaly, and others. Be aware of the possibility of complications that require emergency care, a qualified person.Care with these diseases is to help with the fever, monitoring compliance with a strict regime, sanitary measures, prevention of bedsores.It is necessary to prevent the spread of infection, for which the nurse carries out a number of disinfection procedures.
Cholera - a serious infectious disease characterized by severe inflammatory reaction fine department intestine and dehydration.The main symptoms of the disease include diarrhea and uncontrollable vomiting.Treatment of patients with cholera depends on the intensity of violations of water-salt metabolism.Patients are placed on a bed in which there is an opening that allows feces and secretions of the patient to drain freely.A nurse takes a strict count of diuresis and water balance, and provides disinfection of premises and care items for people with cholera.
Viral hepatitis - an acute infectious disease characterized by three major groups (A, B, C).During hepatitis distinguish several stages.The basis of this disease is damage to the liver cells and the formation of the later of liver failure.The duties of a nurse is to monitor the implementation of the assigned mode and dietary table (№ 5).In case of violation of bowel sister must ensure that the enema.
Polio - Infectious diseases of viral nature manifested different forms.The most common type of paralytic polio, which is characterized by muscle pain, fever, and later - complete restriction of active movements.Care in this disease is reduced to limit the negative emotions and to ensure measures against intoxication.A nurse spends with a patient a set of recommended exercise, massage exercises for the prevention of joint stiffness.
Botulism - acute foodborne illness that develops after eating the food, massive contamination by toxins anaerobic bacillus.The leading manifestations of the disease include difficulty passing bolus or saliva down the esophagus, deepening of voice, visual disturbances.Further develop disorders of respiratory function up to its termination.Patients who are diagnosed with botulism, urgently transported to the hospital.There is carried out a complex of measures aimed at preventing the absorption of the pathogen in the blood to the stomach is washed and put an enema.Immediately introduced protivobotulinicheskaya whey, held detoxification activities.The patient must be connected to the ventilator.For continuous monitoring of the patient is organized personal post.The nurse provides the patient enteral feeding.It is necessary to comply with sanitary norms and psychological climate.
Angina - a disease that is accompanied by an inflammatory response of the tonsils.The main manifestations of the disease are fever, pain in the throat and tonsils raid on follicular, lacunar abscess and nature.It is essential to carry out a patient with angina prescribed strict bed rest because of possible complications of the cardiovascular and nervous systems.Doctors recommended the use of antibiotics, vitamins, topical - infected tonsils irrigation with antiseptic solutions.
Rabies - an acute viral disease characterized by damage to the nervous system, the cause of which is often the bite of an infected animal rabies virus.For the disease characterized by the failure of the psyche, the excitement, the development of seizures while drinking or eating.In the future, there is light and rabies.The disease can not be cured and the ends of the patient's death from paralysis of the respiratory center.The most important activities are the processing of the affected parts of the body after the bite and the immediate introduction of a special vaccination, which will only be effective 14 days after the defeat of animals.Care in this disease involves the patient in the isolation room with light exposure limitation.It is necessary to protect the patient from exposure to the noise factor.
HIV - a serious disease, which manifests itself over long-term damage to many systems of the body, forming immmunodefitsitnogo state, the outcome of which it is the death of the patient.The final period of HIV infection is considered to be AIDS.The disease occurs in several periods and is characterized by a variety of symptoms of damage to the nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular systems.Important in preventing the spread of HIV is the observance of sanitary-epidemiological regime in medical institutions.To do this, the implementation of various manipulation requires the use of disposable instruments and personal items to prevent virus infection.
Tetanus - it is a serious disease, the main clinical manifestation of which is the tonic contraction of muscles of the body, and in the subsequent paralysis of the vasomotor center.Nursing care involves a systematic process of wound surfaces, as well as the introduction of a special serum and symptomatic therapy.An important measure is to limit noise impact on the patient.The duties of a nurse includes prevention of pressure ulcers and infections of the skin lesions formed due to the long stay of the patient on bed rest and the restriction of supply of organs and tissues in this disease.