Antiseptic preparations

August 12, 2017 17:51 | Paramedic

list of these substances is large, but much of it does not meet the expectations, ceased to apply in clinical practice (chlorine water, hloratsid, lead products, aluminum, etc.).

Currently, the following groups of drugs used in surgery.

1. halogens Group:

• Chloramine B - white or yellowish crystalline powder, containing 25-29% of active chlorine.It has antiseptic and deodorant effect.The surgery used 0.5- 3% solutions for washing wounds, hand disinfection, non-metallic tools;

• yodonat, yodopiron, yodolan - aqueous mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates with iodine.The drug is used instead of iodine tincture for processing the surgical field as a 1% solution;

• alcoholic solution of iodine.Widely used for skin disinfection of the operative field, the edges of the wound, the surgeon's finger, etc.Also the bactericidal and bacteriostatic action, and has a cauterizing effect of tanning.Metal tools in contact with iodine perishable.

2. Oxidants:

• hydrogen peroxide solution.It is a colorless 3% H20 s

olution. In water.At its decomposition releases oxygen, which at the time of release has strong oxidizing properties, creating unfavorable conditions for the development of anaerobic and putrefying sores.Apply in wound dressings, as well as presterilizing cleaning tools;

• potassium permanganate.Dark or red-violet crystals are soluble in water.It is a strong deodorizer.Apply water solutions for the washing of wounds, rinsing the mouth and throat, douching.

3. The salts of heavy metals:

• sublimate (mercury dichloride) is the crystals, readily soluble in water.He is a strong poison, so its solutions to differentiate from other stained in blue or pink and labeled with a unique tag.Solutions of mercuric chloride 1: 1000 and 1: 2000 are highly bactericidal, which protein liquids (exudates, blood, secretions from the wound) sharply decreases due to the drug compound with the protein and formation albuminates.Apply silk sterilization, disinfection of gloves, health products.Metal tools by contact deteriorate due to the formation of amalgam;

• mercury oksitsianid - strong disinfectant that is a dilution of 1:10 000, 1:50 000 is used for the washing of the bladder, cystoscopy disinfection;

• lapis (silver nitrate) is used as a disinfectant for washing festering wounds (1- 2% solution), to cauterize the wounds with excessive granulations (10-20% solution).Strong antiseptic.

4. Alcohols : ethyl alcohol or wine.Apply 70-96% solution as a pure and denatured alcohol.It is widely used for disinfection and tanned skin surgeon's hands, preparation and storage of sterile silk, tools disinfection.

5. Aldehydes:

• formaldehyde solution (formalin) - aqueous solution used to disinfect gloves, tools, drainage, urological instruments.Effective against child Echinococcus cells.Dry formaldehyde used to sterilize optical instruments;

• Lizoform - soapy solution of formaldehyde (40 parts of formalin, 40 parts of potassium soap, alcohol 20 parts).To harvest dressings, operating room, and also used for disinfecting hands 3.1% solutions.

6. Phenols. phenol (carbolic acid).Apply 2-3% solution for disinfecting tools, gloves, drainages.A strong poison.At high concentrations, it causes skin burns and mucous membranes.

7. Dyes:

• methylene blue.Apply 1-3% -s' alcohol solutions for burns, pyoderma as a tanning and antiseptic.Aqueous solutions of 1: 5000 is used for washing the urinary tract;

• brilliant green as an antiseptic used 0.1-2% aqueous or alcoholic solution;

• rivanol (ethacridine lactate).Used as an antiseptic wash for cavities, non-toxic, highly effective against coccal flora.