History of anesthesia
known that since ancient times, man has sought to find a remedy for pain relief during surgical interventions, for that used a variety of means (ice, mechanical compression of the nerve trunks), infusions of different plants (the root of the mandrake, belladonna, datura), alcohol.However, these methods did not give a great result and often leads to serious complications.
October 16, 1846 W. Morton first demonstrated tumor resection of the submandibular region with the use of ether anesthesia.This event is the official date of birth of modern anaesthesiology.Morton has also worked on the development of a precursor of modern anesthesia machine - air vaporizer.After a while the air for pain relief operations began to be used around the world.In February 1847 he applied for the first time in Moscow.Earlier in 1844, Morton H. Wells observed analgesic effect of nitrous oxide in the treatment of teeth, but showing the method was unsuccessful, so was long forgotten, though now nitrous oxide is widely used as pa
great importance for the development of anesthesiology have research and development, NIPirogov, who has studied the methods of anesthesia, anesthesia machine created for ether anesthesia.He first showed the negative aspects of anesthesia, complications of anesthesia clinic.Pirogov introduced the ether and chloroform anesthesia in military surgery and the use of anesthesia made during the Sevastopol campaign, more than one thousand operations without a single death from anesthesia.He was the first in Russia to use anesthesia during childbirth, he developed methods for rectal, intravascular, intratracheal ether.
In 1909, SPFedorov and NPKravkov opened gedonalovy intravenous anesthesia, which is subsequently used to start development neingalyatsionnyh and combined anesthesia.
in the 1930s.together with the development of drugs for inhalation anesthesia were neingalyatsionnyh development of drugs for anesthesia.At this time, for intravenous anesthesia barbituric acid derivatives have been proposed - hexenal, thiopental sodium, which are successfully used in the present time.
parallel development of local anesthesia were conducted with the study and implementation of general anesthesia procedures.In this area of great importance for science have the following researchers: VKAnrep, M. Oberst, G. Brown, A.I.Lukashevich, A. Bier.In 1905 it was synthesized novocaine A. Einhorn, which subsequently led to the widespread use of local anesthesia.
in the 1940s.It has been developed and put into practice a new kind of anesthesia - endotracheal.It began the use of mechanical ventilation, the development of anesthesia machines, respirator, which allowed to improve the methods of thoracic surgery, abdominal surgery, the central nervous system.
continue to pursue the development of a multi-component methods of anesthesia, in which, using a combination of drugs and other medicines may affect the various centers of the nervous system.In 1950-ies.Labard Gyugenar and developed a method of hibernation and neyroplegii.Currently, deep hibernation is not used as part of the drug mixture chlorpromazine suppresses the body's compensatory potential.However, widespread got one kind neyroplegii - neyroleptanalgezii.For her, using intravenous administration of fentanyl, droperidol and endotracheally nitrous oxide.Thanks neyroleptanalgezii operations are carried out with good anesthesia, but without the deep depression of the central nervous system.
After the war, a great contribution to the development of anesthesiology have surgeons ISZhorov, ANBakulev, AAWisniewski, ENMeshalkin, BVPetrovsky, A. M. Amosov et al.