Determination of intraocular pressure

August 12, 2017 17:51 | First Aid

Determination of intraocular pressure, which depends on the inflow and outflow of blood formation and the outflow of intraocular fluid and its pressure on the eye wall - a very important point of the study body.In normal intraocular pressure (tone eye) is ranging from 18 to 25 mm Hg.Art., and fluctuations between the rates usually higher early morning (7 am) and a lower night (19 pm), the pressure should not exceed 3-5 mm Hg.Art.Increased intraocular pressure is a major sign of serious illness eye - glaucoma, so know the status of intraocular pressure is necessary for the diagnosis of diseases, indications for medical and surgical treatment, evaluate its effectiveness.It is equally important to recognize and lowering intraocular pressure, which accompanies a number of inflammatory and other processes in the eye.For the approximate determination of intraocular pressure often use palpatory method based on a comparison of pressure (density) in the sick and the healthy eye.The patient closes the eyes and l

ooks down, and exploring puts the index fingers of both hands to the upper eyelid above the cartilage and gently presses on the eye alternately by each finger.The degree of pressure increase is indicated by a (+), two (++) or three (+++) characters "plus", the degree of reduction - respectively, marks the "minus".This study is of particular practical importance when it is impossible to use an instrumental method (for example, corneal ulcers, penetrating wounds, after surgery).

for measuring intraocular pressure - tonometry - are special devices - tonometers.The most accurate of them - tonometer Maklenova.It is a metal (or plastic) cylinder of 10 g for which there are two ends of the porcelain area.Before beginning their studies smeared with paint, prepared from Collargol according to the following recipe: Collargoli, 2,0 g, Aq.destillatae, glycerini aa gtt XXX.The paint is stored in a jar with a glass stopper.For tonometry placed in a separate paint tray, tetracaine 0.25% strength solution (or 2% lidocaine) with an alcohol bottle, wooden sticks with their tightly wound on cotton wet, wrung, sterile cotton wool.For measuring the pressure of the patient is laid on his back on the couch, eyes anesthetized triple instillation of 0.25% tetracaine solution (2% lidocaine), and the cornea is lowered pre-oiled paint tonometer, to move freely in a special handle.At the site of the tonometer is a white circle - flattening area, which is printed by applying the tonometer to the paper slightly moistened with alcohol.According to a special scale, located in the set tonometer measuring the diameter of the circle of light, which corresponds to a certain pressure, expressed in millimeters of mercury: the smaller the light circle, the pressure is higher, and vice versa.For the accuracy of tonometry make two measurements on each eye, the difference between the data which must not be greater than 1 mm Hg.Art.

Elastotonometriya - method, in which the intraocular pressure is measured successively by four different weight tonometers (5; 7.5; 10 and 15 g).In the normal, greater than the load tonometer, the higher pressure readings.The data of blood pressure monitors, calculated on a scale where there is evidence in all four blood pressure monitors, are drawn in the form of an upward curve.Absolute figures and indicators of the ratio gives a more accurate picture of the intraocular pressure.

even more accurate method - tonography - produced using modified tonometry (AP Nesterov) elastotonometrii (SS Khaled) to a special apparatus - tonography.This is determined by the quantity of products and the outflow of intraocular fluid.

eye examination is made after studying the state of the functions of the central and peripheral vision, because they are subject to change after exposure to bright light during ophthalmoscopy and side lighting, palpation, reversing a century, and other manipulations.