Complications of anesthesia
Conduct of anesthesia may be associated with the occurrence of a number of complications.Complications are associated with the technique of anesthesia or feature of the action of narcotics in the vital organs and systems.In the initial stage of anesthesia often there is vomiting, which may occur due to the action of narcotic drug on the vomiting center or due to the presence of various pathologies: pyloric stenosis, intestinal obstruction.Vomiting can lead to aspiration, t. E. Stomach contents from entering the trachea and bronchi.Gastric content with pronounced acidity can cause bronchospasm and laryngospasm.All this leads to respiratory failure and hypoxia.
In implementing the anesthesia procedure may also arise regurgitation, which can be the cause of deep anesthesia, the use of muscle relaxants, reducing sphincter tension, excessive contents of the stomach cavity.Regurgitation - a passive abandonment of gastric contents into the trachea and bronchi.Often vomiting and regurgitation subsequently lead
For the prevention of vomiting and regurgitation is necessary before anesthesia stomach wash, put a cleansing enema.Before the operation it is recommended to use the reception, when the doctor presses the cricoid posteriorly for Pinched esophagus.If you still have vomiting or regurgitation, gastric contents must be quickly evacuated by suction.After recovery from anesthesia in patients also often there is vomiting, for the prevention of the patient is placed horizontally, and the head is turned to one side, patients should be observed for a nurse.
Complications of the respiratory system can occur in violation of the airway.Such complications may be associated with the anesthesia machine malfunction, retraction of the tongue during deep anesthesia, by ingestion of foreign objects into the airways (teeth, dentures).For prophylaxis prior to surgery is necessary to check the status of anesthesia machine, its integrity and the passage of gas through the breathing tube.It is necessary to carefully examine the mouth and before surgery to remove false teeth and dentures.Against the backdrop of deep anesthesia the patient push the jaw forward so as not to sink the language.
When tracheal intubation, which is conducted direct laryngoscopy, it is also possible the development of various complications.These include trauma laryngoscope blade teeth, trauma of the vocal cords, from entering the endotracheal tube into the esophagus, into the right bronchus, bend the endotracheal tube or her way out of the trachea.All of these complications can be avoided if the doctor has mastered the technique of intubation, under the control of the position of the endotracheal tube in the trachea above its bifurcation using auscultation during intubation.
Complications of the cardiovascular system.The sharp reduction in blood pressure may occur at the beginning or during the anesthesia.Hypotension may occur as a result of the impact of narcotic drugs on the activity of the heart or in the vasomotor center.This complication may occur with an overdose of drugs, such as halothane.Hypertension also occurs in patients with low bcc (blood volume).In order to prevent hypotension prior to surgical interventions carried out replenishment volume of circulating fluid, if surgery is accompanied by copious blood loss, you need volume replacement during the operation itself, krovozameschayuschie drugs are administered for this.
often occur during anesthesia cardiac arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, premature beats).To this can cause hypoxia or ginerkapniya, they occur with prolonged intubation or inadequate ventilation.Also to hypercapnia and hypoxia causes an overdose with barbiturates, halothane, together with the use of halothane adrenaline, which increases the halothane sensitivity to catecholamines.
to monitor the heart rhythm of the patient during surgery is needed electrocardiographic monitoring.rhythm disorders treatment is carried out, depending on the cause of this complication, the elimination of hypoxia, reduce the dose of narcotic substances.
case of insufficient assessment of the patient's condition, inappropriate conduct anesthesia, hypoxia, hypercapnia, perhaps the most serious complication - cardiac arrest.In this case, emergency cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
During anesthesia the patient may have hypothermia.This is due to the action of narcotic drugs on the thermoregulatory centers or sub-cooling of the patient.the patient's body hypothermia after trying to restore the body temperature by increasing metabolism.Therefore, at the end of anesthesia and postoperative patients are concerned chills.Chills often observed after anesthetic halothane.For prevention of hypothermia patient must be monitored at the operating temperature, it must be kept within 21-22 ° C, the patient must cover all infusion preparations administered to the patient must be pre-heated to body temperature, and should monitor the patient's body temperature.
Another severe complication is swelling of the brain.Brain edema may occur after prolonged and profound hypoxia during anesthesia.Treatment of the complications begin to carry out immediately, apply methods of dehydration, hyperventilation, local complications of the brain.
abduction With strong hands on the patient's body, tilting the hand backwards, ie. E., If the patient is wrong on the operating table, it can lead to trauma of peripheral nerves.This complication is seen in a day or more after anesthesia.Most suffer from the nerves of the upper and lower extremities, the brachial plexus.Treatment of peripheral nerve damage carried neurologists and physiotherapists.To prevent the development of complications is necessary to observe the correct position of the patient on the operating table.