The second and third year
gradual development of the masticatory apparatus requires the introduction in the diet of a child older than 1 year of solid food of varying degrees of grinding.There is still a great role belongs to milk and milk products, which must be in the child's daily diet (milk in any form to 500-600 mL, the average cottage cheese 50 g sour cream or 5 g).Cheese, cream, sour cream can be given in 1-2 days, but in an appropriate amount.
Of the meat products are recommended for children older than one year, along with beef, chicken, chicken, rabbit, lean pork and lamb, and various by-products.The number of fish.The average child from 1 to 3 years is required 85 g and 25 g of meat of fish per day.Within a week he can get meat 4-5 days (100-120 g) for 2-3 days and the fish (70-100 g).
older child, the whole egg can be given (a day, daily or by half), and not only the yolk.However, this should be done with caution, as some children egg protein can cause allergic reactions.In such cases, the protein should be abandone
From fat products suggested to give 12-17 g of butter (on a sandwich, in ready meals) and 8-10 g of vegetable oil (for salads, salads, a variety of vegetable dishes), but not margarine and refractory edible fats (beef, mutton).
Among the most useful cereal, oat and buckwheat, are resolved barley, barley, wheat.You can also use a specially fortified cereals ( "Sport", "Pioneer", "Health").Pasta (noodles, vermicelli) give infrequently because they are poor in vitamins and contain an excess of carbohydrates.Legumes (peas, beans, soybeans) are a limited number of children over the age of 1.5 years as pureed soups.On average, the child requires a day 15-20 g cereals, pasta 5 g, about 100 g of bread (including rye 30-40 g).Suitable and bakery products (crackers, bagels, buns) with a corresponding reduction in the amount of bread.
main source of carbohydrates in the diet, the older the child is the sugar, but the amount should be strictly limited."Overdose" of sugar can lead to metabolic disorders, overweight, sometimes poor appetite.Child up to 3 years is required from 35 to 50 grams of sugar per day.Because confectionery allowed candy, fruit candy, fruit candy, jam, jam, honey (if tolerated).
total number of confectionery products should not exceed 10-15 grams per day.
in infant formulas are widely used vegetables, fruits and berries as the main source of minerals and vitamins.Vegetables can be given a variety, including radish, radishes, green onions, garlic, and leafy greens (dill, parsley, sorrel, spinach, lettuce, nettles).On the day your child needs about 120-150 grams of potatoes and 200 g of other vegetables.The daily diet should include fresh fruits, berries (200 g) and juice (100-150 ml).If fresh fruit is not present, you can use the children's canned and frozen and dried fruits.
Do not forget about the power mode.The child must develop a conditioned reflex to feeding the clock to provide good secretion of digestive juices and more complete digestion.In promiscuous feeding disrupted the rhythmic functioning of the digestive organs, and decreased appetite.
Up to 1.5 years, the child is usually an additional one-time 5-feeding, although some children at this age give up the last (night) feeding and switch to 4 one-time meal: breakfast, lunch, afternoon snack and dinner.The intervals between feedings should be about 4 hours. It is important to establish regular eating hours.Variances are allowed within 15-30 minutes.
between feeding a child should not be given any food, especially sweets, as this leads to disruption of normal digestion and reduce appetite.The same applies to fruit juices, which are sometimes offered child instead of drinking.In this case it is better to use a neutral or acidic juices and unsweetened broth hips.
Make sure that children receive age appropriate amount of food.For example, for a child aged from 1 year to 1.5 years, he should be an average of 1000-1200 ml, from 1.5 to 3 years- 1400-1500 ml (juices, teas and other drinks in this volume are not included).
Eating less can lead to malnutrition, abuse - to reduce appetite.Particularly irrational to increase the volume of the first dishes that often makes the parents if the child is willing to eat soup or broth.However, eating a lot of soup, a child can no longer cope with the second dish, which tends to be more high-grade ,null, because it contains meat, vegetables and others.
Culinary processing of food for young children has its own characteristics, due to the uniqueness of their development.Up to 1.5 years old baby does not yet have sufficient capacity to digest roughage, so it is fed puree, liquid porridge, and so on. N. But it is necessary to teach the child has a more dense food.
If the children for a long time and only receive semi-pureed food, they have poorly developed chewing skills and subsequently they are very sluggish and reluctant to eat meat, raw vegetables and fruits.Children over 1.5 years are boiled (but not pureed) cereals, vegetables and cereals casseroles, steamed vegetables, cut into small pieces, meat and fish cakes.After 2 years, the meat can be given in the form of fried meatballs, chopped eider, fish - boiled and fried, released from the bones.
as widely as possible, use fresh vegetables in the form of chopped salads, and for children up to 1.5 years - grated on a coarse grater.Salads of raw vegetables can be given not only for dinner, but for breakfast and dinner.
To preserve the nutritional value of foods is necessary to strictly observe the rules of cooking.
Milk can be boiled no more than 2-3 minutes, avoiding re-boiling.In the preparation of cereals, vegetable purees, baked milk is added to the already boiled cereals and vegetables.Meat after a thorough mechanical cleaning is better to cook large pieces, dipping in hot water.At the same time on the surface of the meat proteins coagulate and the meat juice does not flow.Fry meat, chops necessary in boiling fat, which also contributes to the formation of crust, meat juice retention.The stew is prepared by lightly frying and then cook in a little water.
It is important to handle the vegetables.While cleaning can be cut away as a thinner layer, it is contained in the upper most vitamins.For salads and salad vegetables are better to cook in their skins in a little water or steamed.Vegetables can not be peeled to leave a long water leaching to occur vitamins and minerals, but they should boil in a small amount of water, then using it as food.Cooking time is strictly limited: potatoes, cabbage, carrots - no more than 25-30 minutes, sveklu- 1 to 1.5 hours, spinach - up to 10 minutes.
Vegetables and fruits for raw and clean cut salads (rubbed) immediately before meals as oxygen when exposed to air and purified in their ground products occurs destruction of vitamins, especially ascorbic acid.
The following article presents the methods of preparation and formulation of certain types of foods for infants and some meals for children aged from 1 year to 3 years.