The basic principles of family medicine
general practitioner or family doctor - a specialist who carries out the first systematic and assistance that covers various fields of medicine.Family medicine is widespread in Europe and is central to providing assistance to the population, as only a family doctor and a nurse are perfectly familiar with their patients and are able to pay attention to small changes in their health status.No other section of medicine is not given much attention to examining the patient in relation to his family members.A feature of family medicine is to conduct therapeutic and preventive measures to different age groups of patients who are part of the family.
Activity GP also covers diverse social and national categories of the population, as patients performed self-selected expert in the industry.The basis of the activities of family medicine up four principles - permanence, comprehensiveness, synthesis problems, professional health workers.The presence of the above characteristics of the service family medicine promo
Currently, the Russian initiative established a branch of family medicine, as evidenced by the publication of the corresponding order of Ministry of Health of Russia № 237 of 26 August 1992 "On the gradual transition to the organization primary care on the basis of the general practitioner (family doctor)."GP - is a highly qualified specialist in various fields of medicine, such as pediatrics, internal medicine, geriatrics.He must be competent in matters of genetics and areas of special profile -. Ophthalmology, gynecology, endocrinology and other activities of the family doctor and nurse based on solid knowledge of hygiene, medical nutrition, psychology and pedagogy.
There are two types of specialists of family medicine services.The first type involves their joint activities with representatives of other specialties (gastroenterologists, endocrinologists, cardiologists, etc..).The second type involves the implementation of functions without intermediaries, iewhen the family physician conducts related activities, without consulting with their colleagues.At the present time in many areas of Russia are widespread therapeutic and prophylactic complexes in which both carried the sick therapeutic, gynecological and children's population.State employees of these institutions consists of a significant number of family medicine specialists who occupy a leading position in the structure of assistance to the population and specialized experts are working toward that with the patient.Organisation of family medicine will improve the efficiency of the provision of medical and preventive care, to form an ordered and precise coordinated health system.In our country only begins life implementation of family medicine in practice.This is a complex process, since it is necessary to find a solution to many problems, one of which is the separation of the doctor of functional responsibilities and sisters general practice.Also it is necessary to establish the true information about the patient's problems and determine the level of responsibility of the nurse according to law and the relevant moral norms of its activity.
nurse general practitioner is obliged, first, to determine the satisfaction of public needs disturbed patient.Its activities are focused on the relevant subject (patient) and its physiological, social and spiritual problems.A nurse in the work with the patient should set ourselves certain goals and diagnose the results, in order to achieve that it is necessary to work closely with the families and friends of the patient.Nurses of family medicine services significant period of his activity is carried out with the patient and his family.They must form a view of the patient and his associates the importance of maintaining their health, disease and the need for appropriate care.This event will provide a favorable result of the activities of medical personnel.Currently, the implementation of new principles of the system of providing outpatient care.One of them is the gradual creation of primary care from the perspective of family medicine.Created a basic package of health legislation provides for the election of an independent family medical professional and involves a high level of professionalism of the nurse of general practice.The family doctor and a nurse are required to implement relevant types of treatment and preventive measures, assigned to them by the families, despite the presence of different age groups.Activities of the medical staff is often carried out at home.Decree of the Ministry of Health of Russia from August 26, 1992 provides for the introduction of new staff units - a doctor and a nurse of general practice.
often draw an analogy with the district nurse sister of General Practitioners.However, the range of duties of the Family Health Nurse much more.One of them is the implementation of a set of sanitary and anti-epidemic measures.Also, general practice nurse must be competent in matters of immunization.Educational focus of the Family Health Nurse involves educating patients and their families elementary mutual processes.A nurse of general practice is to form and carry out the appropriate care of patients of childhood, as well as implement the relevant recommendations of family doctors.One of them is carrying out the diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation in accordance with the legal rights and obligations.A nurse must carry out first aid in the event of an emergency condition of the patient, such as traumatic injuries, various types of shock, respiratory arrest and cardiac activity.The duty nursing - systematic monitoring of the activities of junior medical staff.
Currently, much attention should be paid to training of nursing staff with a focus on the organization of a multi-level system of education and the introduction of new disciplines.The introduction of the above developments will form one of the most important qualities of the medical service worker family medicine - independence.Activity nursing service family medicine depends on the training level.For example, a family nurse works with a general practitioner only when the end of the 3-year course in college.Nurse, held a 2-year training course at the school, can only help the nurse of general practice.Activities based on helping general practitioners, is assigned to the paramedic, who studied in college 3 years and 10 months.The specialist is working in the system of regional departments of health care institutions.A nurse, a university graduate, is able to lead several departments of family medicine services and manage the activities of general practice nurses.This position refers to the group of academic specialties.The activities of family medicine services focused on the person, his family and the people around them, it is part of nursing.This organization is based on the principles of a healthy lifestyle and major matters relating to health and society as a whole.A nurse of general practice must be prepared for the high quality work in the field of family medicine.It should thoroughly and comprehensively implement the nursing process in the disciplines of the narrow profile (such as endocrinology, gynecology, ophthalmology, etc.) and a deep and comprehensive knowledge to navigate according to the medical field.Family nurse must be competent in the humanities - to be a good teacher and a psychologist.
Currently, gradually formed a family approach to the delivery of primary care.In this case, it increases the responsibility of a nurse for the health of the patient.One essential component of the Family Health Nurse is a clear understanding and application of the fundamentals of nursing.Having some knowledge in various disciplines, general practice nurse should not only perform various medical procedures, but also to carry out all sorts of conversations with family members.These measures help to ensure the process of education in the areas of nutrition, physical education, psychology, etc.Different types of discussions on these issues will help to solve many of the social problems of our time.Activities nurse general practitioner is regulated by the corresponding Decree № 237 of the Russian Federation Ministry of Health.According to his sister, the general practitioner is able to work both in the municipal and private health care facilities.Activities Family Health Nurse is carried out on a contractual basis, after selecting her particular family.The list of functional responsibilities of the nurse include: implementation of the reception of patients in the clinic, carrying out emergency measures, aid in the diagnosis of diseases, the implementation of the family doctor's appointments, support of family members in addressing the psychological and social nature.A competent and highly skilled work of a nurse of general practice is largely determined by not only the high level of duty, but also a thorough deliberation of each step.
activities of each sister's general practice is subject to licensing, which involves a list of its main features.In a perfect embodiment of nurses working in family medicine service, should receive higher medical education in "health manager".In this case, the academic sister GP synthesizes medical knowledge sisters uzkoprofilnyh physicians (ophthalmologist, surgeon, gynecologist, etc.).Family nurse should be able to carry out electrocardiographic examination, diagnosis of disorders of the respiratory system (peak flow).One of the duties of the sisters is to establish a general practice of visual function (visual acuity and measurement of intraocular pressure) and a hearing aid.It must understand the interpretation of the results of analyzes for diseases of the circulatory, digestive, endocrine (glyukotest) and urinary system.Also the responsibilities of family nurses are carrying out physiotherapy activities and the implementation of hygiene and therapeutic massages.She must own methods of providing emergency care in life-threatening conditions.For example, a nurse general practitioner is obliged, if necessary, to restore the airway, administer artificial respiration and chest compressions.When cardiac arrest patient family nurse should start the heart, using a special device - a defibrillator.It should be competent in matters of health statistics and to have certain skills of its activities with the help of modern computerized technologies.
main objectives of the work of family nurses are the preservation of health and prevention of diseases in their wards.Therefore, it is obliged to consider the family as a single structure and to take into account its national and social characteristics, as well as psychological ties between its members.Family nurse should consider the factors adversely affecting the health of wards: smoking, alcohol abuse, drug addiction, as well as occupational hazards.Currently, an increasing number of patients at particular risk for diseases of the cardiovascular and endocrine systems, which should be borne in mind nurse of general practice.An important element of family sisters are thorough and comprehensive review of the health status of family members, counseling in the event of adverse changes, as well as a complete analysis of the outcome of the work done.Therefore, the nurse of general practice early stages of development of various points of view relating to the state of health of the family.
specialists of family medicine services carried out a range of activities for the treatment and prevention of diseases in families attached to them.The competence of the Sisters of general practice includes a special relationship to their patients, which implies the recognition of their individual characteristics, as well as the experience of their problems within themselves.The functions of the family includes the ability to define sister violated the needs of the patient, which also include conflicts within the family.Patients assigned to certain medical specialists should carry out a systematic correction of therapeutic and preventive measures.The most important elements of an effective health system are the decline in disease mortality and an increase in the birth rate among people living in a certain area.The approach to these indicators, and then their stability in the characteristic activities of the system of primary care to the population is possible only when the joint coordinated cooperation of the family doctor and nurse.Currently, most work is done in Russia associated with the opening of the relevant forms of education of general practice nurses.Important role in the organization and implementation of the principles of primary health care belongs to the family's sister.
The system of providing assistance to the population, there are two types: primary and qualified assistance.The first type of exercise all outpatient and inpatient health care facilities that do not have in their structure units and departments a narrow profile.The second type of aid agencies organized the relevant specialization, such as Hospital, Research Institute, etc.primary care system involves a systematic impact on the health of people living in a small area defined by the initial structure of the health system.At the heart of the functioning of primary care services is a doctor and nurse work of general practice.For successful primary care activities should adhere to the basic position.First, the organization is obliged to comply with the peculiarities of life of people it serves, and, if necessary, carry out appropriate treatment and preventive measures.Second, primary health care is one of the most important items on the "Health" national project.Other medical services are formed only for the purpose of providing the advisory and technical assistance structures primary health care centers.Then, the primary care service fully interacts with the structures providing assistance in education, transportation and other needs.