Help the patient with electrical accident
damage the human body electric current and voltage of any origin is electrocution.Electricity - a common phenomenon and is found in manufacturing, agriculture, transport, life and nature (atmospheric electricity - lightning) while using current high and low voltage.Electric shock occurs when you touch the uninsulated power sources, and at the high voltage current - even when approaching live parts.Low voltage currents used in everyday life (120 and 210 V) are no less dangerous, because in contact with them far more people, with more likely to violate safety rules.Electrocution may occur and short-circuit or a lightning strike close to a person.
One of the factors that increase the possibility of electric shock upon contact with the wires and electrical appliances, is the weak-current resistance of the skin (eg, a baby's skin or moist skin).Electric shock the same voltage can cause electrical shocks of varying severity, as the important role played by the duration of human exposure, protection work cloth
Passing through the human body, an electric current is local and general damage to the body.The first can be found in the wake of the current entry and exit from the body, they should be called electric signs, which are essentially burns of varying severity (usually III level) and, as a rule, have a small circular shape with a central pupoobraznym impression grayish-whitecolors.Burns accompanied by tissue necrosis at the surface and in depth, sometimes even charred skin, usually around the reaction can not be detected.If a man was struck by lightning, the skin can be detected "lightning shape", which is a branching pattern of reddish color that occurs as a result of bleeding or vascular paralysis.cases where victims shock tore the limbs have been observed.Quite often, an electric shock to the victim ends in death.In this case, the action of the current mechanism of death are two: in the first case of death comes from the appearance of atrial fibrillation of the heart under the influence of weak currents, the second - from respiratory failure due to high voltage.
General electrocution phenomena manifest tetanic muscle contraction throughout, which do not allow the victim "unstick" from the wiring.affected skin pale, cyanotic hue appears, the victim loses consciousness, his breathing stops, and, eventually, no aid coming heart failure.By the way, the lack of breathing and heart rate while electric shock is not always a sign of the victim's death.In such cases, there comes "apparent death": stops breathing, pulse disappears, heart sounds are not listened.When electrical accident apparent death of the true distinguish very difficult, so you should always remember that when all signs of the onset of death of the patient manages to save, if you apply for a long vigorous artificial respiration.Only the appearance of spots and cadaveric rigor mortis when electrical accident gives the right to consider the victim dead.
During the period of convalescence after receiving electric shock possible deterioration of the general condition of the patient, manifested by the disorders of the cardiovascular and nervous systems.Often necrosis develops, it would seem, with slightly pronounced reaction in this process of destruction is developing at a fairly large extent, than would be assumed immediately after the defeat of the affected shock.With the rejection of the dead tissue may bleed.
first aid begins with as quickly as possible the impact of the termination of the current to it, at the same time care should be taken to the victim, who is in a convulsive state, with the rapid power failure has not fallen and did not receive additional trauma.Switch off the power supply can be, if cut through it (for example, an ax or a shovel with a wooden handle, scissors bite, having to isolate the handles).If you turn off the power source is not possible, the victim should pull away from him.Since this process is quite complex, it is providing assistance to the victim and the current action, so it should be safe: wear rubber gloves and use a wooden stick (branch of a tree, etc.) to push the victim from the power source, and drygaloshes, dry board will help him to be isolated from the ground - a good conductor of electric current.Rubber gloves and overshoes, wooden siding and board are poor conductors of current.
If these items on hand was not, you can wrap your hands a woolen scarf.
After the release of the victim from the power source, if he is unconscious, immediately begin rescue breathing, sometimes it takes 3-4 hours or more.It is carried out until then, until the victim starts to breathe on their own.Cease mechanical ventilation, when the victim's body appear corpse spots.It recommended subcutaneous or enter carbogen to smell ammonia for excitation of the respiratory center.Well help rubbing and warming of the victim's body.
To maintain cardiac activity recommended subcutaneous enter camphor, caffeine, Digalen intravenously - strofantin, in severe cases - the adrenaline to the heart.
First aid for electrical accident in a health center in the enterprise can be carried out using artificial respiration with the help of special devices, to work on a special apparatus singles fibrillation of the heart, to organize intra-arterial blood transfusion.
Rend followed by blood transfusion is indicated for marked cyanosis.
Lumbar puncture is assigned when a meningeal phenomena.
treatment of victims of electric current must be conducted in a hospital environment, since it is possible onset of secondary pathological disorders, in some cases, requires a fairly large amount of time.At the hospital the victim appointed oxygen inhalation, injection of glucose, excessive drinking, is the treatment of paralysis and other nervous system lesions.
Treatment of burns resulting from electrocution, carried out in the same way as thermal burns.
struck by lightning is similar to electric shock and high frequency voltage, so in many cases as a result of a lightning strike people die instantly.On the skin there are characteristic bands of red, in the field of entry and exit discharge burnt edges.Symptoms and methods of first aid are the same as in the electrical accident.In milder cases, the victim appointed bed rest for three days, cardiac agents, anti-anxiety drugs, heat.
traditional treatments affected by lightning is burying the victim to the ground.This is not recommended, since it is possible infection in the wound, and in this position the patient breathing difficult.