thermal lesions are not only burn wounds, and frostbite, which occurs as a result of cold on the body, so that there is a long drop in body temperature, damage to anatomical structures (up to necrosis).Frostbite are classified according to the degree depending on the depth of tissue damage.
I degree.In this case, after rewarming frostbite the skin becomes bluish or purplish hue.
II degree.In this case, immediately after rewarming, or (rarely) a few days appear blisters filled with serous fluid.
III degree is characterized by the appearance of blue-purple color of the skin of the affected area, severe swelling of the tissues.Bubbles filled with hemorrhagic fluid.Necrosis extends to the whole thickness of the skin.
IV is characterized by the degree of necrosis of tissues, including bone.Without immediate relief in 7-8 days after the injury developed wet or dry gangrene.
As a rule, in the same anatomical region along with frostbite I V degree observed and lighter degree frostbite.
Periods of frostbite:
• hidden (doreaktivny), during which the frostbite area pale, cold to the touch, insensitive.The patient complains of numbness;
• jet period during which after warming frostbitten area affected is experiencing severe pain, frostbite the skin becomes edematous, with cyanotic shade.Patients experience a burning sensation, heat, pounding sensation of numbness in the frostbitten areas.
Frostbite most often exposed to the lower limbs, with frostbitten fingers normally and frostbite does not extend above the ankle or wrist.Ears, nose, cheeks exposed to frostbite much less.Frostbite occur when the air temperature -10 ° C and below.Frostbite most often (up to grade IV) experienced by people in a strong alcoholic intoxication, were seriously injured and in a fit of epilepsy and other, ieloss of consciousness without the assistance.In such situations, severe frostbite.
In addition, as a chronic frostbite I degree perfrigeration release that occurs when long-term repeated exposure to cold and is accompanied by swelling of the skin, they stress, a cold snap.Chilblains as an occupational disease common among fishermen, sailors, rafters timber, ie,people who are constantly exposed to the cold effect.
Emergency Care Prehospital reduced to warming of the affected area.This can be done in a warm room, a warm water tank, wherein the temperature for 15-20 minutes to 36-37 ° C is raised to 39-40 ° C.The effectiveness of the procedure is greatly increased if the parallel with warming to massage the affected area from the periphery to the center.Warming should be approximately 30-40 minutes in water, and then wipe the affected area should be dry and clean with 70% alcohol and then apply dry sterile bandage with a thick layer of cotton wool on the outside.Instead basin or tub with water, you can use other means of warming, such as a heating pad, make a fire and warm the victim.Hands, for example, can be warm in the armpit or between the thighs of the victim.Wet clothing and shoes must be dried or replaced by a dry and clean.
In the case where the victim's ears and frostbite of the face, they should be clean hand or rubbing with a soft cloth until porozoveet until the skin, and then treated with alcohol and oil to lubricate the damaged areas.Snow rubbing frostbitten skin to use in any case can not, because you can not only cool the skin even more, but also damage the top layer of skin, bring an infection, etc.
After these events affected should be given a hot drink, food or vodka (50-100 g).In order to prevent tetanus injected tetanus serum victim.Appointed by painkillers (Promedolum et al.), Vasodilators (general! Event with first aid amount to the affected country house) of hot (platifillin, papaverine, etc.), As well as means of preventing thrombosis.