The scheme described games
In practice preschool selection of games is often not enough thoughtful and even randomly.Meanwhile, the game selection for the teacher - it is a serious and responsible.The game should give the child the opportunity to put into practice what he is already familiar with, and to encourage the assimilation of the new.In addition, when choosing a game should not be limited to its substantive content (access to knowledge and skills), needed more and preliminary analysis of the nature of the game.
description of each game is presented as follows:
1. Features and its educational value.
2. Gaming material.
3. Description of the game and the methods of its implementation.
4. The rules of the game.
5. Tips educator.
We tried to trace the inner connection of each game with the preceding and following, show, on what is already acquired experience based child in every game and a new step in its development it does.Games are organized into sections on learning tasks.In each section, they are presented in a se
first decisive condition for the normal mental development of children and the foundation of its prosperity in the kindergarten are friendly and open relationship with his peers and teacher, the ability to cooperate, - the joint venture.Although the type of relationship to others to three years already formed at this age it is still possible correction.Therefore, in the preschool age when a child entering kindergarten is very important to bring his active-positive, friendly attitude to adult.The three-year child and feels the need to communicate with their peers.Enter the baby in the children's collective, teach him to communicate and make friends -Important task of the educator.After all, how will develop the child's relationship with the tutor and with other children, and dependent on his mood, well-being, as well as advances in the cognitive and personal development.
Therefore, in the first section of the game aimed at developing friendly relations between children in joint activities and convergence of the children and the educator.It presents the mobile games, fun and dance.Using movement as a means of communication and build the game play in a specific order, we got a kind of game stages partnership.
In addition, it is known that the movement will not only develop the child physically, but also activates his brain activity.The first section of each game in the description discloses, as is the case in practice.
Games second section focused on the development of humane, moral relations between children and volitional qualities of personality, which are expressed in behavior and actions:. To help others, to bail out, to deliver a pleasant, etc. However, the implementation of these actions and deeds requires willpower to overcome skillsobstacles to control himself.Games, arranged in order of complexity rules that require the child's increasing awareness, determination, organization, which is a precondition for its participation in the subsequent games, aimed at cognitive and mental development.
Thus, the game first and second sections provide the necessary emotional and volitional and moral background for other games.
significant part of the games (the third - sixth place) is dedicated to actual touch for preschool education.Especially important is education in the preschool age, when a child has not yet been allocated and is not aware of the distinctive quality of the surroundings.Offered games create conditions for the development of purposeful perception of external signs of objects.Playing, the child learns different techniques of visual, auditory and tactile examination, helping to distinguish and highlight the quality of objects, compare them to these qualities and marked with an appropriate word.So there are sensory standards, t. E. Generally accepted ideas about the qualities of external objects.The development of sensor technology is a sensible basis for all abilities of the child (cognitive, aesthetic, creative, etc.), For the full, conscious perception of reality.
The last three sections are devoted to games, developing basic cognitive processes - attention, memory, thinking and speech.
Usually in practice, preschool games such poorly presented.Meanwhile, they offer great opportunities for the development of cognitive processes, because in games the child does not just comply with the requirements of the adult, as it happens in the classroom, but it is active.The game creates the necessary link between the practical and intellectual activities, which leads to the development of the child.
Of course, every game contributes to the development of attention, memory, thinking.For example, selecting and comparing the significant features of objects in the sensory games, the child makes a rather complex mental operations.Before it is put a certain mental problem (be careful, remember something, to convey their thoughts in words and so forth.), And are offered rational methods of its solution.These techniques are based on establishing connections between different cognitive processes, which ensures their effectiveness.For example, in order to better remember a few things you need to establish conceptual link between them.
Educational activities aimed at addressing the learning objectives proposed taking into account age features three-four year olds and they do not tire.
In games on attention to the child perform such acts kotorye- form a focused and sustained attention.The task "to be careful" becomes understandable and relevant to the child.
In games that develop memory, younger preschool children learn to communicate between objects (remember, to recall later).This relationship is defined by the rules of the game and action game.For example, to remember where game characters live, the child must remember the label at the same cabins.
The thinking on the development of games specially created situation and proposals for action to help the child learn to convey the thought movement and connected speech.
Rational methods of cognitive activity, indicated for adult child, increase its efficiency, not only in the game, but also in the classroom.
Games are located in each section in order of increasing complexity of the learning task and rules.Complicates and game situations, gradually approaching the training.
In every game there are two principles: one carries entertaining, another calls seriousness mobilization.The ratio of these two principles (the prevalence or severity of entertainment) determines the nature of the game situation or type of game.We have developed four types of educational games: fun, games, play the role, tasks and games-games-competitions.
most clearly presented in the beginning of the entertainment, amusements games.Junior preschooler is always striving for something unusual, fun.Positive emotions effectively protect children from the mental overload, because that entertain, never tiring.Joyful experiences bring child-fun games that are completely absent and dry didacticism edification.Learning task of such a game is usually carries the child and does not require much effort.For example, offer baby dance with the doll and then choose who to pass it, or with all wander in the dance, or run and jump under the rhyming text.Game action is always associated with the movement and do not burden the children sitting in one place.In the first section of the game, the fun in the majority.Subsequent sections will usually start with such games.
second type of games, which also dominated the beginning of the entertainment are playing the role.Psychological studies have shown that a child, in accordance with the role and fuller use of the opportunities and much easier to cope with many problems.Acting on behalf of cautious sparrow, brave mice or amicable geese, children learn without noticing it.In addition, the role of the game activate and develop the imagination of children, prepared for creative self-game, which is particularly important in the preschool age, when the plot-role-playing game is just being formed.Imagination is getting support for the task.
B amusements games and games with the role of an educational task is a condition for implementing the game plan.In the form of games - games-problems it is the very essence of the game, its meaning.The game plan is based on the child's interest in mental activity.The solution proposed by the task becomes a condition of the game communication between children and the means by which moleno win the recognition and respect of their peers.Game tasks are placed in the last section, dedicated to the development of perception and other cognitive processes.Game situation is varied: it is different order (for example, find the object with the specified properties on the proposal), and children's bingo (color, geometric), and zagadyvanie and solving puzzles, etc. Games tasks require the child targeted active mental..activities, the ability to mobilize, focus, to find the right solution.
fourth type of game - it's competition.The motivation here is to compare yourself with others.However, as the psychological and pedagogical research, this motive still • underdeveloped in children three to four years.Therefore, in the collection of these games a little bit.Games competition may have a negative impact on the insecure, shy, passive child.Therefore, we offer games ( "empty space", "Who used to reach the flag?" "Tom Thumb") contains only elements of the competition, which do not injure the baby.Elements of competition used in many games.They prepare children for the correct assessment of their capabilities and achievements.
These kinds of games are not only based on the interests of the younger preschoolers, but also develop them.Fun Games, fun take turns role-playing games, which, in turn, fed the child to participate in games, challenges, that is the preparation for future training activities.But developing the game becomes only if it is of interest to children.And to make it interesting can only caregiver.
First of all, the teacher should be to choose the right game for their group, taking into account the level of development of most children.Each section offered a desirable sequence of games that develop certain abilities and qualities.Since the first two sections are the introduction and psychological preparation of children for more complex games, we encourage them to begin with.However, this does not mean that children should be acquainted with all the games these sections before you start a new one.After playing with the kids in two or three games, you can jump to other sections of the primary games, particularly to touch.For successful mental development of children and prepare them to learn useful parallel to acquaint students with the first seven games section.
Since most educational games are short on time, and are simple in their organization, they can be successfully carried out not only in the classroom but also in their free time for a walk in the afternoon.But if the game is quite unfamiliar to children and require them fairly high mental stress, it should be sure to spend the morning in the hours reserved for exercises.During this time, children are more productive and better able to absorb new.
methodical principles in the use of games - their repetition, which is a prerequisite for developing effect.Pupils in different ways and at different rates and learn a new take.Regularly participating in a particular game, children begin to understand its content, it is better to use the conditions that create the game for the development and application of new experiences.
In the description of each game are tricks of her for the first time and the nature of its repetition in the same day.In the councils of the educator indicates how to carry out this game again and how, given the difficulties of children, to carry out an individual approach and complicate the task of teaching.Later the teacher can make extensive use of their teaching experience and varied techniques of the game.
It is very important not only to choose the right game and good her.Pre-educator must prepare the necessary gaming material, carefully read and understand the recommendations contained in the book, to understand the psychological characteristics of the game and its educational value.It is necessary to visualize the entire course of the game: how to interest children how to explain the rules and action, who choose the first role, how to prevent potential trouble.
During the game, all the participants: those who perform responsible roles, and those who just watches the actions of partners, waiting for their turn, must be active.This is a prerequisite for developmental and educational success of the game.