Hygienic education

three-year child can wash your face and hands, use a handkerchief to dress and undress, and put on one's shoes and take off one's shoes with little help from adults when buttoning buttons or tying shoelaces, alone eat with a spoon and drink from a cup, to sit at the table, rinse your mouthafter eating, brushing your teeth.A child of this age have mastered the ability to independently use the potty.Recently produced and commercially available plastic inserts for toilets designed for children of preschool age.The child must be taught to sit alone on the insert toilet, proper use of toilet paper, be sure to wash their hands with soap after using the toilet.

muscular system in this age develops unevenly.Large muscles are well developed, small (hands, fingers) are still weak and tire easily.Cartilage tissue is replaced by hard bone.Intensively growing bones of the skull, hands and feet.But in general, the bone is strong enough.There is little mineral salts, and the first curvature of the spine may begin at t

his time.To prevent bone deformities, misuse their ossification and incorrect posture is necessary to follow the correct fit of the child at the table, his position in bed during sleep and motor activity.

Unlike adults children while sitting spend more effort and produce a large muscle work, because even learn to overcome the unstable equilibrium.Sitting for them - an act of static electricity, and do not rest, as in adults.It is known that the equilibrium is easier to observe in motion.That's why children quickly get tired of sitting and having fun running around.

seating process can be easier and more enjoyable if you pay attention to the correct fit.Sit correctly - it means to take a position in which the hips are at right angles to the spine and tibia, soles touch the floor the entire surface.Poor, when the feet do not reach the floor or seat is so low that the lower leg rise above the level of the hip joints.And in the first and the second position is disturbed muscle tone and they get tired more quickly.It is desirable to develop a direct fit to the child's back is parallel to the back of the chair.Excessive reliance on the back and the associated deviation back back just as harmful as the inclination of the body forward, contributing to the development of poor posture, round the back stoop.

height of the table, behind which sat a child, should be such that the hand and forearm freely lay on it without stop.Relatively high table is immoderate rise of the elbow and compensatory curvature of the spine.A low table child flexes the trunk forward, stooping.

incorrect landing at the table - this is not only a violation of posture, but the cramped conditions for the activity of important vital organs: heart, lungs, kidneys, intestines.

The human eye is designed in such a way that the distance of 30-35 cm is the most convenient for viewing small objects.At any age, it is most effective distance for precise actions, reading, drawing and so on. N. Therefore, we must make sure that the baby is "not driven nose" over the paper when viewing pictures, drawing and sculpting.

table child and the place where he always plays, should be well-lit.It is desirable that the light fell from the left side and a hand holding a pencil, do not obstruct the open field pattern.Poor lighting, improper posture and the systematic violation of the distance between the eyes and considered the subject can contribute to the development of myopia and other visual defects.

passing, it should be said about watching television.If a child is often watching TV, there may be an overload of sight, hearing, mental.The duration of television viewing for children of this age, in our opinion, should be approximately 15 minutes.During this time interval fits and popular program "Good night, kids."Passion TV programs - is not only a violation of the regime of the day, but also the greatest threat to mental fatigue.Very often, the baby restless sleep after the evening look a movie or other large gear.

Mental fatigue - the only one of the causes of restless sleep.Another reason for this can be spicy food at dinner.Grilled meat, salted and pickled food, spicy seasonings and snacks excites the nervous system, causing thirst and the associated temporary glut of body fluid.

Son - the physiological condition of the body, and it must be preceded by a number of useful conditioned reflex action.Firstly, the emptying of the bladder and bowel.In the fourth year of life, children have to do it on their own, without help from an adult.In most cases, they cease to use the potty and adapt to the toilet for adults.

washing your face, brushing your teeth, rinsing the mouth - the second mandatory procedure before going to bed.If your baby sleeps badly, you can use a third procedure - a warm shower.When undressing and lying down in bed adult child needs to be seen that the clothes were stacked neatly in its place, a nightgown or pajamas worn, and he lay down on his right side and put his left hand on the blanket.In this position, the baby should be left alone, without having to wait until he falls asleep.Otherwise, parents will always be "tied" to the sleeping child, and he accidentally woke up at night, I will feel a sense of fear and loneliness.

And what about when a child is afraid of the dark?Fear of the dark - not an uncommon phenomenon.It is characteristic of many children.If the baby does not want to stay alone in a dark room, it is not necessary to scold, punish, called "coward."By these measures, the fear disappears, and the child will simply hide their fear.This baby need to soothe, caress, to persuade.If he agrees, you can leave the door open in the lighted room or turn on a night light.

The air in the room where the baby sleeps should be cool, window or pane (depending on the season) open.

In respect of sleep remains true ancient rule - it is better to go to bed earlier and get up earlier, because a deep sleep from dawn to dusk most appropriate biological nature of man.If the right conditions are met sleep, he not only brings a good rest, but also completed a joyful awakening, desire more to get out of bed and exercise.It was then, and has appeared in time during morning exercises.To her exercises were varied and interesting, you need to buy for a child skipping rope, balls, gymnastic hoop and gymnastic stick 90-100 cm long, 2.5-3 cm in diameter.

In the fourth year the child is still not very clear verbal commands performs duringcharging, so he must do it with adults.In this case, not only the baby hears the explanation of the exercises, but also sees their correct implementation.Featuring motion, should take into account the frequency of breathing.In children, it is greater than they are younger.Movement with the participation of many groups of muscles, including the muscles of the trunk, are slower than the moving only the arms or legs.

Morning exercises, which, as always, good outdoors or by an open window, begins to walk, workout, then go respiratory gymnastics, jogging (100 m), again breathing exercises and fun fight.The exercises have to make as many game elements as possible.You can use the quatrain, believes based, simple songs, game situations that mimic the action of animals, hunt, ride on transport and so on. D.

Used still exercise "a spring" (bouncing), throwing a ball against the chest, because of the head andthe target (the basket, wrap and so on. d.), overcoming obstacles, "football", with a stick exercises.

Walking complicated by the fact that the baby is moving on his toes, heels, outer, then the inner edge of the foot, with a high lifting straight or bent legs.Breathing and other exercises are interspersed simulating the flight of birds, swimming, sipping, using objects: sticks, hoops, ropes.

masters such exercises as the body tilts to one side (right, left), down;torso forward so that the child wanted to get the floor, or fingers, picking up the ball, bending, shifting it from one hand to the other behind the legs at the ankles;crouching and tapping his wand on the floor ( "hen pecks grain");torso twists in the supine position.His arms and legs spread out, the ball in one hand.Keeping his feet and hands on the second floor, the baby should turn the body and shift the ball to the other hand.Movement for children 3-4 years in most cases, are imitating character (fly like a butterfly, beat the drum, to disrupt the apple and so on. D.).

should be borne in mind that the performance of the same exercises over 8-10 consecutive days the children can get bored.

As usual, charging is completed running, walking and water treatments.

Morning exercise for 4-5-year-olds should last 5-6 minutes.Every week in the range of 1-2 are introduced new exercises.Fully updated set of usually not more than once a month.First, a new set of exercises may seem difficult child.Then for the first time, some of them can be performed in a lightweight version.If the exercise children are wrong, point to it, they should smile, cheerful tone.

If for some reason the physical exercises with the children performed immediately after a dream you can not, you can do the day after 1-2 hours after breakfast or after a nap.In the evening to charge should be at least 1-2 hours before bedtime.Benefit from an evening class, certainly less than that associated with lower activity of the child at this time.Well, if classes are accompanied by music.This helps the rhythm of movement, makes it easier to exercise.The best music is children's songs, easy march music.

Often parents are interested in what age children can buy these or other sports equipment.The answer is - skis, skates, scooters, bicycles can be bought when a child show interest in them and will be able to master them.On skis you can put your baby to 3 years, on skates with 4-5, tricycle can enter into his life in 2-3 years, a two-wheeled - from 3-4 years.

From 2-3 years child is made available such favorite entertainment like scooter.It is necessary to select for the growth of the baby.When riding he held his hands over the steering wheel, one foot on the platform becomes, the second repelled from the ground.To exercise on both legs was the same, a start should be alternately one or the other leg.Riding a scooter increases motor activity of children, develops their natural posture and motor reactions that resemble those when running.Skating Training scooter allows the child in the future to quickly and easily master riding a bicycle.

Cycling strengthens the muscles, trains the balance and coordination of movement, brings courage, determination.The first purchased for a child to be a two-wheeled bike with wide tires.He is chosen strictly on the rise.Saddle it stronger so that the child did not have much flex.The distance from the seat to be lowered down pedals reflect actual lower leg with the foot that children 4-5 years of age is approximately 25 cm, 6-7 years -. 30 cm distance from the steering wheel to the seat vertically should not exceed 4-5 years old children18 cm 6-7 years - 20-22 cm still, if the kid rides a bike, it is important to constantly monitor the correctness of his posture..To prevent violations of her every 20-30 minutes is recommended to arrange a break from skating child to run, jump, play outdoor games.Acquire bike children who have identified violations of posture, not recommended.

During training children skating on a scooter, a bicycle is necessary to foster their attention and discipline, to acquaint with the rules of traffic.

For children of preschool age is characterized by an extraordinary desire for knowledge of surrounding objects, things, phenomena.

new knowledge and skills the child acquires in the course of the game, labor, employment, and so on. D. It is therefore important to organize them properly, give them the right direction.An adult can take part in the baby game, help him to complicate or to play on, started the child on his own initiative.However, you should never force children to play on the orders of an adult.In this situation, they lose interest, they can quit the game and begin to protest against the intervention of an adult.

must consider not only age, but also the individual characteristics, aptitudes and interests of the child, the right to evaluate and use this opportunity wisely.Overloading can cause fatigue and have a negative impact on the health, physical and mental development.Avoid overloading helps the rational organization of the daily routine.The child should be taught only what he is currently in a position to not only memorize, but also to understand.On the other hand, training should not blindly follow the development of the Scourge in its tail.Development is formed through the training.Properly delivered training contributes to the normal development.

It is the desire for knowledge are linked various unpleasant incidents and even naschastnye cases: injured by sharp objects, thermal and chemical burns, poisoning with drugs and other toxic substances, electric shock, ingress of foreign bodies in the airways, nose, ears.To avoid this it is necessary to remove dangerous for children items and substances are not available in their place.Sockets should be installed at a height such that the child can not reach them or close them.

cause of poisoning of children may be the negligent storage of chemicals, drugs available to them in the ground, sometimes in boxes from under the candy or other sweets.Being inquisitive kids try everything they see.In children younger than 2 years of poisoning are less common and are usually associated with a casual reception brightly colored pills and tablets when they are on some, albeit non-durable while left unattended.Household poisoning are more frequent in children aged 2-5 years.The cause of poisoning can also be a desire to preschool children imitate adults, simulating gaming activities of physicians, cooks, and so on. d. Playing the doctor and the patient, the children often seek and find these medicines and take them.These games invite guests and treat them to anything.It may be not only the products of the house, but also a variety of plants, berries, including across and poisonous.

On the fourth year of life increase sharply children contacts in yards, parks, kindergartens.Mass contacts the risk of infection.

With this regard, it is desirable that the parents during the hygiene procedures carefully examined the children.The first signs of many infections are skin rash (measles, scarlet fever, rubella, varicella) or swollen glands (mumps, called a "pig", rubella).

In any case, a sick child should be put to bed, isolated from other children and call your doctor at home.

Sometimes baby skin there are various kinds of irritation, scratching, rashes.They can be a manifestation of metabolic disorders, skin lesions pathogenic fungi, pyogenic infection, scabies, etc. N. For such skin lesions need to seek medical help as many of these states are harbingers of serious diseases (eczema, scab, mange, etc.. d.).Examining the child, you need to pay attention to his fatness.The thickness of the fat folds, which is defined under the left shoulder-blade, normally equal to 1 cm. When excess power is much thicker this fold, there has also been an increase in subcutaneous fat on the abdomen, thighs, buttocks and the breasts.Completeness, as thinness, - alarm.

child in the preschool age, as well as "grudnichok" needs to monitor the proper administration of all physiological functions.Even if the baby does not show any complaints, parents should guard frequent yawning, mild, but intermittent cough, night cough, violation of nasal breathing, sleeping with his mouth open, excess nasal mucus, excessive salivation, grinding of the teeth, swollen, cracked lips, perleches in the corners of the mouth,droplets of pus in the nasal corner of the eye, ear suppuration, more than the usual number of "bruises" on the skin, limitation of movement in a particular joint, swelling, no matter where they were located, dry or oily skin.And it is right.And that's why.