Education of the young child
education of children in our country pays attention.
build him the qualities that should be inherent in the citizen of communist society.
Realizing their responsibility to the people, the Fatherland, the parents tend to become conscious educators of their children.But we must remember that education - not a mechanical craft, always allowing the use of the same techniques and methods.The proper education of insufficient experience and the advice of others, no matter how they were good.The right way you need to be able to find their own thoughtful attitude, persistent meditation.Children - a large and complex case.And it must begin with the first days of life.Does mother know that a child's character is formed very early?Even the first impression left a definite mark on the child's brain.The conditions in which the child lives, the relations developing between his teachers - all find it a response, and perceived impact on the character.
main bases of education, - said the remarkable Soviet educator AS M
first three years of life - the most rapid in the physical and neuro-psychological development of the child.The growth of the newborn (about 50 centimeters) to one year increased by half, reaching 75 centimeters.By the end of the year the child is already able to crawl, sit, stand, walk.At an early age, he gets a lot of knowledge about the world around him, learns to feed himself, to undress, wash, play different games.In the first years of his life he possessed speech.Finally, the first three years - it is the most tender age, requiring vigilant parents caring for a child's health, knowledge, protection child's body from the adverse effects of the environment and disease.
to properly care for the child, skillfully bring him from the first day of life, parents, especially mothers, have a lot to know and do.
Education only gives tangible results when the whole life of the child from the first day is organized properly.
mother should establish a strict and correct the child's mode.If he gets used to a certain routine, it will not require food at the wrong time, do not suddenly want to sleep, but these habits - the original elements of the emerging nature.If the mode is not set and you should know that admitted first and fundamental error in the child's upbringing.And do not be surprised if, awake, baby whimpers, and in the hours when put to sleep, he is awake.Children who are accustomed to the regime grow cheerful, calm, well put on weight.But how to ensure that the child slept and played at certain times?For this we need to know a few rules.The first rule of thumb is that the child slept well at night, you need to during the day, he had time to wake.Never rock the child to wear it in her arms, sitting beside him, and so on. G., As a result, the children created a bad habit to fall asleep only in someone's presence, otherwise the children are capricious, cry, their sleep becomes restlessthey often wake up.
fresh cool air - the best way for a quick sleep.The street children sleep long and hard.Stay outdoors not only causes a strong and deep sleep, but also serves as a good means of preventing various diseases.Children who are accustomed to sleep in the summer outdoors, must continue this mode and winter.
We must remember that the dream will be strong only when it is preceded by an active wakefulness.Therefore, for children from 2 to 9 months of this procedure is recommended: sleeping, eating, playing, and then sleep until the next feeding.Sleep well the child will have a good appetite, and fed -dolgo and play safely.
But we must not forget the time change the mode of the day and sleep for the child according to his age, as if to detain children under the conditions of younger age, they sleep poorly.It often happens that a child laid in bed tossing and turning for a long time, worried.The reason for this may be not only light, noise, loud conversations of others, but also experienced impressions of the day.Therefore, if the family has several children, it is necessary to make sure that before going to bed, they do not undertaken a romps, quarrels, can not tell the children "scary" stories.
There are children who have characteristics of the nervous system such that they find it difficult from the vigorous sostoyaniya- go to sleep and
vice versa.Before going to bed, they are excited for a long time, kids act up, older children revolve in bed, jump, laugh unnaturally loud.By stacking these children should be treated very carefully, help them fall asleep.You must create a child unit that you should sleep.Young children quiet and calm voice are told: "Little Johnny is now going to sleep, bye, bye."Older Children are disciplining order: to collect toys, undress themselves before going to bed, neatly folded items.This contributes to quiet sleep.
mode is determined not only by the age of the child but also his state of health, individual features.Children who have had the disease, children with easily depletes the nervous system need to be shortened and lengthened the time of waking dream.
How to organize a wake?
long intervals between sleeping in a child increases progressively: the smaller the child, the shorter they are, and the more often interspersed with sleep.Three-month baby can not stay awake tiring 1-1.5 hours, child 9-10 months- 2.5 hours polutorogodovaly - already W, 5-4 hours, and a three-year -6 hours.
fairly easy to arrange child's play, who knows how to walk, talk, look at the pictures, to build a house out of blocks.But how to engage your baby in the first months of life are 1, 5-2 hours, which are assigned to him awake?
newly born baby is helpless.The first thing he learned at the end of the first month of life, it is to look at the surrounding objects and hearing the sounds rang out around him.Therefore, over the crib baby should be already from this time to hang bright large toys, to show them to him so that he watched them stare and talk with him, singing his simple songs.The family must not forget that in the first months of life it is necessary to teach a child to engage in play and not only adults, but also independently.To the child was cheerful and develop normally, you need to give him the opportunity to move, engage the toy.To do this, then put the children at two months of age in hours bodrostvovaniya pants stockings (sliders) that the child was easier to move, it is recommended at this time to remove the mattress from the bed and lay on the bed base plywood or any mat covered with oilcloth;then the child is more convenient to move or change position, lie on your back, side, abdomen, rise, and later walking along the bed of the barrier.
should dwell on the mistakes that allowed the family in the development of the movements of the child in the first year of his life.More often have to face the fact that a child 3-4 months already trying to sit up in bed, obkladyvaya pillows.This can lead to distortion of the spine and compression of the chest.So as harmful to the child's first months of life, to put it for a long time on their feet.Much more important for the development of movement, the child crawled over and gone, than sitting and standing.
An important part of the regime is the organization of nursing.Digestive system of an infant is not yet adapted to the digestion of any food.it must be gradually accustomed to new types of food.Improper feeding can cause severe illness, which usually affect the development of the child's body.
many cases where children are capricious, refuse to eat a nutritious and well-cooked food.This usually occurs by feeding a disorderly.A child who is used to have part time, at the time of feeding more intensively work digestive and salivary glands, increasing the appetite.It is well known that food is eaten with relish, well absorbed by the body, it improves appetite.The appetite is awakened not only in the form of food, but when talking about it.
Often instead cause a child fond memories and ideas about food ( "What we have today is a delicious porridge and then pudding, red, sweet"), trying to feed him as unobtrusively as possible.
Often the child resists and capricious when it is fed by force, but with what pleasure he eats himself, getting into the hands of the spoon.It is therefore important in the first year of life develop in the child a number of active movements: to 5 months ability to hold in their hands a bottle of kefir, remove lips eating with a spoon, for 9-10 months to drink from a cup, have a crust of bread.If 1 year 2 months to teach a child to eat solid food spoon (mashed potatoes, porridge), by 1 year, 6 months, he has to learn to wield a spoon and feed himself.
necessary to take care of the child to actively participate in the training camp for a walk in the washing, undressing.Gradually, the task for the child you need to complicate.
known that children very early show a desire for independence.They want to wash, eat, wear shoes.Do not be overly patronize the baby, prevent the slightest of his desire.Not helping and doing everything for the child, eliminating even a bit of trouble, which he could easily overcome, parents hinder the development of volitional qualities.
child's speech development begins in the first year of life, long before he utters a word.The first sounds ( "Gulen" 3-W, 5 months and babble with 7-8 months) are usually caused by a gentle conversation with an adult child.
By the end of the first year of the child begins to understand the speech of adults and the first to say simple words, to 2 years are gradually being replaced by more complex words.Adults need to monitor the correctness of his speech, and the speech of the child, to correct him if he utters the words wrong.
in children 1.5-3 years, many questions arise: why?what is it?what?All these questions always have to answer.Children this age love to listen to stories, fairy tales, poems, songs.The development of speech visual impressions to help children.Books for them should buy a bright, large pictures, large text.Pictures should be considered together with the child, explaining to them and answering questions.The text should be read slowly, with expression.No need to read a few books in a row.Child 2-3 years old can learn a poem or a simple song.With a child it is necessary to talk, to explain to him what he sees him take a separate corner, put there a table, a stool or a chair, a box of toys, hang pictures, shelves length to .....
need to teach children to take good carethings, observe cleanliness in the room, but at the same time it is necessary to meet the needs of the child in the game, giving him the opportunity to build, invent, implement, their plans.The game
children appear the first shoots of collectivism and friendship.The child soon begins to feel the need for comrades.If he goes to kindergarten, it is usually immediately interested in collective games.If a child grows one, it is necessary to make sure that he had companions, otherwise it will become reclusive, shy, or, on the contrary, selfish, cheeky.Sometimes adults feel empty game fun, speak disparagingly of her.Poor parents arrive and those who interfere with the game, eager to do everything for their children.In such cases, the child ceases to think creatively, he develops a lack of confidence in their abilities, lack of will.
play great pleasure, increases vitality, strengthens the nervous system.Jumping, running, frolicking, children master the movements necessary for their physical development.No wonder some doctors call the game "mental vitamin".
child needs encouragement, praise, affection.Calm, gentle treatment of the child, you can achieve a lot.The main task of adults - to bring up a child the skills of correct behavior.
Good skills easier and better secured if the child pay attention not to the negative and the positive aspects of his behavior.For example: "How well do you and gently removed the toys," etc. At the same time, it is too caress children because of this, they become moody and tenderness...
If not one, but two or three children in the family, the adults should treat everyone equally.
child must learn to safely fulfill the requirements of the adults, he should know what you can do and what is not.To achieve this, it is necessary to clean out those items that the child can not be taken.If a child requires them, you have to calmly, but with a stern look on his face telling him "no".In the future no longer need to remove the object, but only one word "no".But you should never say "no" very often, for any reason, as the children get used to this word, and it loses its power.Each is necessary to justify the prohibition.You can not change his mind (today prohibit and allow tomorrow).
children easily imitate what they see in the family.If adults among themselves cutting, rude, if they are unrestrained in dealing with a child, the children all adopt.All members of the family of the child should be a single line of conduct.
prohibition should be done in a strict and categorical form, can not enter into a dispute with the child.In addition to the ban, it is necessary to use a reprimand.A good technique is to divert the child from anything forbidden.Helping a child to do something interesting, adult thereby easily switch it and distracts from pranks.It is totally unacceptable to intimidate children and even more so to beat them.This inhibits the child, causing fear and excites his nervous system.
But at the same time, parents should listen to the child and protests, as they are often justified.
Many children in our country are brought up in nurseries and kindergartens.The staff is very beneficial effect on the formation of positive character traits, because from an early age creates a habit to reckon with friends, help one another, to observe the regime of the day.Collective games provide plenty of room for imagination, train the mind, the will of the child develop his abilities.Game imperceptibly into useful lessons: they enjoy the flowers watered, bathed dolls, sew their dresses.
So, parenting - important and responsible job.However, the desire to raise the child properly enough - we need knowledge, patience, perseverance.And above all, we must remember that the education of the child should be started from the first day and that early childhood plays an important role in the further development of man.
raise a child from an early age by the forces of each and every mother father;much more difficult to eliminate the persistent weaknesses in character.