Overall development of the child
most important indicator of the health of the child is a natural development - the weight, height, circumference of the chest and head.The average birth weight of 3500 g to 3375 g of boys and girls.Average growth of respectively 51 and 50 cm. The circumference of the newborn's head on average 34-35 cm, chest circumference 32-34 cm. Thus, a newborn head circumference larger chest circumference of 1-2 cm.
ratio of head circumference and chest
at birth, head circumference is 34-35 cm and chest circumference of 1-2 cm smaller (32-34 cm).Alignment of these dimensions occurs at age 2-3 months.In the future, chest circumference greater than the circumference of the head;to 1 year, the difference is not less than 14 cm. In the future, the baby's head is growing more slowly, its circumference after 6 years increases by only 5-6 cm.
Measurement of head circumference and chest is made measuring tape.To measure the tape head is carried out through the eyebrows and occiput for chest measurement - in the nipple
also to assess the child's development should take into account the state of the skin, movements develop, teething, mental development and other indicators.
Skin and subcutaneous adipose layer
healthy baby skin should be pink, smooth, elastic;subcutaneous fat layer is sufficient, but not over-developed.When viewed from a child in child care need to pay special attention to the skin: if it is clear whether her rash.the little baby's skin is thin, tender, richly provided with blood through an extensive network of superficial blood vessels.It is easily vulnerable and damage can serve as a gateway for infection.If the inspection found fresh skin abrasions or scratches, it is necessary to lubricate them with a solution of brilliant green, iodine or alcohol.If you have a rash child must see a doctor, as many scars are a sign of infection.
Bones and newborn infant are low in calcium salts and other salts that are part of the adult human bone.Therefore, they are flexible and at the correct position of the child is easily bent.So, from the very first months of life may occur deformation of the skull, chest, curvature of the spine or legs.At birth, the baby skull are separated by layers of connective tissue - joints.In places of crossing expansion joints form a connective tissue membrane - fontanelles.Large fontanelle is located between the parietal and frontal bones, diamond shape;the average size of his newborn baby 2x2 cm. It is closed to 12-15 months.To measure large fontanelle centimeter tape placed between the opposite sides of a rhombus (but not between its corners).Small fontanelle is located between the parietal and occipital bones.It can be closed at birth or closed in the first months of life, but not later than 3 months.
Muscles newborn thin, weak.Movement committed by arms and legs, messy.At the age of 1.5-2 months, lying on his stomach, the child raises his head and holds it;between 2 and 3 months of starting to keep your head and body in a vertical position.Between 4 and 5 months with the improvement of the shoulder girdle muscles enough toy;to 5 months he holds it in his hand.In 6-7 months, the child is sitting, to 8 months gets to his feet, clutching the bed railing.walks on the bed or on the floor in the first 9 months, relying on the furniture (couch edge, chair, stool, etc..), at 11 months, the child is able to stand without support, by the year begins to walk.All these terms mean;In practice there are deviations in either direction, even in healthy children.
Lymph nodes can be felt in most children.They can be single and multiple, sometimes welded into bags.Their sizes can range from a small pea and even millet grain to a bean and more.A large number of lymph nodes show their major dimensions generally transferred on child diseases.With frequent catarrhal processes in the respiratory tract, with angina and chronic tonsillitis particularly strongly increased cervical lymph nodes, in diseases of the oral cavity - submandibular, in inflammatory processes in the chest - axillary, etc.
oral cavity of a small child is relatively small.Salivation in the first months of life significantly, the mucous membrane of the mouth is dry.With 3-4 months the number of detachable mucus increases immediately.For the first time, when the child has not yet developed a reflex swallowing saliva that fills the mouth, salivation accompanied by salivation.Stomach newborn small, is positioned horizontally.The child first months of life is easy to burp.With a good appetite and a good build-up weight regurgitation is not a symptom of the disease.Some children sucking swallowing air (aerophagia), and then the child spit up less, it is necessary to hold him after feeding in an upright position for 20-30 minutes.The residence time of food in the stomach of infants breast-fed at 2-3 hours in artificial - 4.3 hours, and at a large number of dietary fat (cream and other fat blend) - more.
Teething begins at the age of 6-7 months.From 6 to 8 months, cut through the lower central incisors, 1-1.5 months - upper middle incisors, from 9 to 12 months - lateral incisors.Thus, the right of the developing baby to 1 year should be 8 incisors.At the 2 nd year of life erupt first small molars, canines, and then the second small molars.By 2 years of eruption of primary teeth ends.A total of 20. 6 years of age begins teething: baby teeth fall out, and in their place appear permanent.The change takes place in the same manner as the eruption of primary teeth.Ends replacement of teeth to the 12-14 years of life.Simultaneously with the beginning of the change of teeth in a child aged 6-7 years, there are the first large molars, one on each side.By 12-14 years grows by the second big root tooth on each side, a total of 4. Thus, the period of puberty, has 28 teeth.The remaining 4 large molars ( "wisdom teeth") are cut in the adolescence or even later.
Agencies baby breathing, especially the lungs, working with great intensity, as the volume of the respiratory movements is limited and the demand for oxygen is high (on body weight each kilogram of the child first months of life consumes oxygen in 2-3 times morethan an adult).Newborn makes 40-60 breaths per minute, at 6 months of age, their number is reduced to 35-40 to 1 year - up to 30-35, 5 years - up to 25, in 10 years the number of breaths is 20-22 in12-14let- aged 18-20 breaths per minute.Little baby belly breathing (abdominal or diaphragmatic breathing type).Therefore, counting breaths nurse, not pressing, he puts his hand on the child's abdomen.Due to the uneven breathing in young children to count the number of respiratory movements are for a full minute.
child's heart on the total weight of his body more than that of an adult.Heart muscle is well developed.Nevertheless, due to the enhanced metabolism heart rate, and hence the pulse strikes the child significantly greater than that of an adult.
pulse rate in children: newborn - 120-140 beats per minute to 6 months - 110-130, to the year - 110-120 beats.For 5 years the number of heart beats per minute should be no more than 100, to the 10 years it drops to 80-85.Pulse small child can be considered in the radial artery, as adults, or the temporal artery.It is possible to count on the heart and push with his hand on the heart apex.Pulse should be considered no less than 15 or 20 seconds, respectively, obtained by multiplying the number of strokes 4 or 3.
chair in a healthy baby is an average of 2-3 times per day, breastfeeding can bemore.He usually homogeneous, pasty.Color is usually yellow, with aromatic smell sour.Urination infant unconsciously (like the unconditioned reflex).The child first months of life urinates 20-25 times a day, closer to the year - 15-16 times.
mental development of the child
Newborn baby sleeps almost the whole day, waking only to feed the clock.During the first year of life, there is a rapid development of the cerebral cortex, and hence the higher nervous activity.At 1.5-2 months smiling baby.In the first 2 months there guttural sounds (Gulen) in 3-4 months - drawling, singsong sounds uttered ( "melodious" Gulen).In 4-5 months, the child laughs out loud.In 5 months he clearly distinguishes the mother and other familiar faces from outside, there is talk, in 8 months, the child understands the meaning of certain words;looking at naming things look appropriate.
By 1 year, expanding the circle of words understandable to the child;there are the first meaningful words (start your own child's speech).It fulfills certain requirements ( "Share", "let", etc.).He understands the prohibition.
From 1 to 3 years it is rapidly developing independent child.In the preschool years is the further formation of the personality of the child.He is inquisitive, asking a lot of questions to adults.
child's character traits are influenced by the environment.At preschool age appear notions of morality, on the duties.The behavior of young children is dominated by the processes of excitation, entailing rapidly occurring fatigue.To restore the function of the cerebral cortex child needs a long-term dream.The total duration of sleep in the night: in the newborn - 20-22 hours, at the age of 1 month - 16-20 hours, 1 year - 14-16 hours, 3 years - 12-13 hours, 4-7 years - 11-12 hours,8-10 years - 10-11 hours, 11-13 years - 9-10 hours, 14-16 years - 8.5-9 hours, including nighttime sleep duration from the first months of life up to 3 years is 10-11 hours..