Tactics of vaccinations.methods of administering vaccines
Before the vaccination is necessary to carefully check the quality of the product, its labeling, integrity ampoules (vials).
Opening ampoules, dissolve the lyophilized vaccine (measles, mumps), the vaccination procedure is carried out in accordance with the instructions in strict compliance with aseptic technique.
drug into the opened ampoule (vial) must not be stored.
Toolkit for carrying out preventive vaccination (syringes, needles, scarifiers) should be disposable and render useless in the presence of the person to whom the vaccine, or his parents was held.
When conducting medical staff vaccination procedures must comply strictly with the relevant provisions of the "Guidelines for use of the drug."During the vaccination the patient should take the position of sitting or lying down.
This will help avoid the drop in possible fainting, which occur during the treatment of adolescents and adults.
with the vaccination using the following methods of drug administration: dermal, intradermal, subcutaneo
Parenteral preparations (cutaneous, intradermal, subcutaneous and intramuscular route) may be performed using bifurcated needles, syringes and needleless injectors.Needleless injectors carry the vaccine, serum preparations warm stream through the skin under high pressure.This method of vaccination allows the patient to avoid pain, they can vaccinate up to 1,500 people at 1:00.
prior to parenteral administration of inactivated vaccine graftable skin at the injection site should be wiped with alcohol or ether, and grease after inoculation with 70% alcohol.
Intradermal vaccine should be administered strictly by the skin inside of the forearm or the outer side of the shoulder, sticking a needle cut down at an angle of 10-15 °.In the case of the correct insertion of the needle in the skin at the injection site there is a small, off-white, clearly defined and dense formation of the form of lemon peel.When
subcutaneously administered vaccine need needle 45 at an angle of 50 ° in the subcutaneous tissue subscapular area or outer side of the shoulder (hip), or in the lateral portions of the abdomen.
intramuscular injections of the vaccine should be carried out in the upper outer quadrant of the buttocks.
Before vaccination of live vaccines used on skin, the place where you want to scarify the skin, to be treated with alcohol and then with ether.Then apply a few drops of the drug at a desired distance from each other, according to the instructions of the drug.After that, a special tip scarifier (pen) drops caused by skin to make shallow cuts to the papillary layer (should see a drop - a blood dew).vaccine then should be wiped scarifier plane, to dry for 5-10 minutes, and location of notches sterile cloth cover for 45-60 minutes.
When vaccination enteral liquid and tablet formulations are introduced through the mouth.they distribute grafting respectively spoon or tweezers, the polio vaccine is given through a special horn with a pipette.
Oral drugs are administered grafting only in the presence of a health professional.
When intranasal immunization need to use a special spray gun.Before the introduction of the vaccine to vaccinate every spray tip should be wiped with 70% alcohol, enter a depth of 0.5 cm into the nasal passages, previously cleared of mucus.
Violations equipment or volume of injected drug can lead to various complications and reactions in the grafting.
Watching vaccinated in accordance with the instructions for use of drugs in the first 30 minutes after administration, as at this time it is theoretically possible development of immediate reactions, including anaphylactic shock.
According to the Russian Federation Law on sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population vaccinated against tuberculosis, polio, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps are mandatory.