Total care for a sick child
sick child even more than a healthy, need fresh air.It is necessary to systematically ventilate the area in winter, the warmth of concealing the child;in summer you can keep the windows open all the time.You must often perestilat bed baby, shake out the blanket and sheets, especially if the child receives food in bed, ensure that the mattress lay flat without forming mounds and folds.It is important to change clothes as it is pollution, but at least once a week.If a child suffers from involuntary urination, regardless of the age of the child it is necessary to cover the mattress with oilcloth, on which lay a sheet.The child should be a daily wash, wash his hands before each meal, with perspiration carefully wipe the skin dry with a towel and linen change.In a sick child often dry, "parched" and cracked lips.It should be several times a day to grease them with butter or petroleum jelly.
children's hospital medical staff on a daily basis must ensure that children of preschool and school age
seriously ill children with oral health need outside help.After each meal nurse should wipe the child's teeth, tongue, mouth rinse.To do this, hold down the Kocher forceps or cotton ball, moisten it with a solution of soda (0.5%), borax (5%) or saline and clean the teeth.Then, sterile cloth to capture the tip of the tongue and gently pulling the tongue out of the mouth, the other moistened swab to remove plaque from his back.You need to rinse the oral cavity with a syringe or rubber balloon.For washing use a weak solution of soda (0.5-1% strength), borax (2- 3%), hydrogen peroxide (0.6% solution), potassium permanganate solution (1:10 000) or sodium chloride(0.9%).During washing the mouth the patient should be given a half-sitting position and tilt his head forward.Chest and neck to close the diaper or oilcloth apron.Below is necessary to substitute a bowl and spatula pulling angle of the mouth, a soft spray jet from the syringe or first rinse the gums, and then the mouth.Rinse the mouth in patients with young children produce with the assistant.Child need to sit down on his knees assistant, who with his left hand should hold the child's hand, and the right, putting his hand on his forehead pressed against the head.baby legs is necessary to fix the knees assistant.Typing in boiled rubber bulb 1% soda solution or a weak solution (1:10 000) of potassium permanganate, nurse, holding in his left hand trowel, open the child's mouth and send a stream of light to the hard palate.During the procedure, the child's head should be tilted down and sideways in one or the other way.The water from the oral cavity must drain into the substituted tray or basin.
Rinse the throat and pharynx allowed children only after 3-4 years.For rinse solutions are used furatsilina (1: 5000), rivanola (1: 2000), potassium permanganate (1: 5000), alkaline solutions of soda and other mixtures, herbal infusions or herbal teas (chamomile, sage, calendula, eucalyptus, etc.).Children of preschool age should not be given irritating solutions for gargling.It is important to teach a child to hold while rinsing liquid so that it partially fell on the back of the throat.When angina is desirable to gargle 5-6 times a day, with pharyngitis - 2-3.With diarrhea the child should frequently wash away.
Sick children are often irritable and moody.Implementation of hygienic and medical procedures, breast-feeding are difficult because of the child's resistance, so the nurse need to be patient and gentle in dealing with children, try to injure the patient as little as possible.
Power sick child
patient food must be complete, except for some diseases in which certain restrictions are conducted.In all cases, the food must contain a sufficient amount of vitamins.Particular attention should be paid to feeding children with poor appetite.You can not overfeed.Feeding the sick child should be slowly and intermittently.
In the case of vomiting in a sick child it is necessary to put and keep his head.If vomiting in the child first months of life it is necessary to turn to one side;small - to put a diaper and older - to substitute the pelvis.After vomiting you need to rinse your mouth and drink 1-2 sips of cold water.After vomiting, the baby should be put to bed and tuck.If you want to put a foot warmer.
pot or bedpan
pot or bedpan that uses the child after each use should be thoroughly washed.When an infectious disease or diarrhea of any etiology need to disinfect the pot, and the patient's discharge.
body temperature measurement
patient needs two times a day to measure the temperature: the morning on waking the child and in 16-17 hours (after a nap).If necessary (for fever) thermometry carried out more frequently.Raising or lowering the child's body temperature can be estimated to determine the touch by applying the palm to the forehead or back.In determining the skin temperature to the touch it is important that the arm was warm and dry.The normal body temperature is maintained within 36,5- 36,8 ° C.If you suspect that a significant temperature deviation from the norm it should be measured with a thermometer.The body temperature in children is usually measured by mercury maximum thermometer.To establish a column of mercury in the thermometer is the minimum mark needed to shake off.In older children, the temperature measured in the armpit or in the oral cavity in young children - in the groin or rectum, where the temperature at 0.2-0.4 ° C higher than the armpit.Before measuring the temperature of the skin is necessary to remove moisture.When properly installed thermometer of its cone-shaped spray of mercury should be completely covered by skin fold, and the child's arm or leg - fixed.Length measuring temperature - up to 10 minutes.In the mouth the thermometer must be fixed between the cheek and gum or under the tongue with closed lips for 3 minutes.Measure your child's body temperature should be recorded.In the children's hospitals of the temperatures recorded in the history of the disease, and the temperature schedule is drawn.To identify the pathological process is not only a one-time measurement of temperature.It is necessary to observe its dynamics, and this can be seen only in the management of leaf temperature.Often the temperature increases slightly only at certain times of the day or a regular.In such cases, the measurement should be carried out within a day every 3 hours. The temperature of the skin in different parts of the body varies even at normal body of the child.The upper parts of the body it is usually higher than in the lower, over the distal limb is lower than the proximal above.To measure the temperature of the skin in various areas of the body are Elektrotermometriia TEMPO-60 (electric medical thermometer semiconductor).
In the room where the child is sick, you need to create a calm environment.It is important enough sleep at night and daytime.All observations should be registered nurses.In hospitals and other institutions for this purpose for each child to make a special nursing sheet.In this list daily need to register the child's body temperature, his appetite, stool, nausea or vomiting, frequency and character of urination.
When a sick child in a hospital it is important to create a calm, gentle atmosphere.In the emergency room at Children's Hospital should be a toy that can attract the attention of the child.If the toys in the waiting room is not permissible to take a clean and safe (with no cutting edges) toys in the mother.Child hospitalized with mother or other person close to him.For seriously ill and very excitable children is necessary to ensure peace and quiet.If a childcare mother admitted, it is necessary to strictly require her exact execution by a physician, but at the same time, treat it calmly, in a friendly way.A nurse must be present at the doctor's crawling, telling him in detail about the results of their observations and personally acquainted with appointments.
injections and other procedures are often afraid of the baby carried in a hospital.The child should be invited into the treatment room, where everything is ready for the injection or procedure.
In wards recovering children need to take care of their leisure.If possible, children are provided with toys, books, allowed the organization of peaceful games and activities.