The seven-day week
origin of the seven-day week.Artificial time units consisting of several (three, five, seven and so on. D.) Days, there are many ancient peoples.In particular, the Romans and the Etruscans were of the days "vosmidnevkami" - the trading week in which the days designated by the letters A to H, seven days a week were operating, eighth - bazaar.These days, the market grew and days of festivities.
But now, the famous Jewish historian Josephus (. 37 -tuples 100 AD) says: "There is not one city, Greek or barbarian, and no nation, which would not have spread our custom to refrainfrom work on the seventh day. "Where did "went there", this seven-day week?
custom measure time seven-day week came to us from ancient Babylon and, apparently, due to the change of the Moon phases.In fact, the length of the synodic month is 29.53 days, and the people saw the moon in the sky about 28 days, seven days, continues to increase in the phases of the moon from a narrow sickle to the first quarter, about the same - from the fir
But observation of the starry sky gave another proof of "exclusivity" of the number seven.At one time, the ancient Babylonian astronomers discovered that, in addition to the fixed stars, the sky and seen seven "wandering" stars, which were later called the planets (from the Greek word "planetes»,
which means "wandering").It was assumed that these luminaries revolve around the Earth and that their distance from it increases in this order: Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn.In ancient Babylon arose astrology - a belief, if the planets affect the fate of individuals and peoples.Comparing certain events in the life of people with the position of the planets in the starry sky, astronomers believed that the same event occurs again if the location of the stars again.The very same number seven - the number of planets - was sacred for the Babylonians, and many other peoples of antiquity.
days of the week.Dividing the day into 24 hours, the ancient Babylonian astronomers made the idea that every hour of the day is under the patronage of a certain planet, which, as it "controls" them.Account hours was launched on Saturday: the first hour of its "managed" Saturn, Jupiter vtorym-, third - Mars, the fourth - the sun, the fifth - Venus, the sixth - and seventh Mercury - Moon.After this cycle was repeated again, so that the 8 th, 15 th and 22 th hours, "managed" Saturn, 9 th, 16 th and 23 th -.., Jupiter, etc. The result was that the first hourthe next day, Sunday, to "manage" the Sun, the first hour of the third day - the Moon, Mars, fourth to fifth - Mercury, the sixth - and seventh Jupiter - Venus.Accordingly, this and got their names days of the week.Sequential change these names represented astrologers inscribed in a circle seven-pointed star, at the vertices of which are usually staged days of the week, the planets and their symbols (Fig.).
Ris.Astrologicheskoe image shifts weekdays
These days of the week the names of the gods moved to the Romans, and then in the calendars of many Western European nations.In Latin, French and English, they look like this:
Translation c Latin
|Monday||Dies Lunae||day moon||Lundi||Monday|
|Tuesday||Dies Martis||day Mars||Mardi||Tuesday|
|Wednesday||Dies Mercurii||day Mercury||Mercredi||Wednesday|
|Thursday||Dies Jovis||day Jupiter||Jeudi||Thursday|
|Friday||Dies Veneris||day Venus||Vendredi||Friday|
|Saturday||Dies Saturni||day Saturn||Samedi||Saturday|
|Sunday||Dies Solis||day sun||Dimanche||Sunday|
«Discrepancies" in English due to the fact that the names for Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, the British took from Norsemythology, where Tiu - god, similar to Mars, Boda - Mercury, Thor - Jupiter and Freya - Venus.In French, the language of the title on Sunday means "the day of the Lord."The names of the planets are to indicate days of the week and many Asian nations.
In many languages, several days a week (and sometimes all) 'numbered':. In the Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Arabic, Greek, Chinese, etc. In this case, if, for example, in the languages of the Baltic countries and China Monday corresponds to the "first day"Tuesday -" second day ", in Greek, Georgian, Armenian, Arabic, Monday corresponds to the day with the number 2, Tuesday -.. day number 3, etc. This numbering days originated in ancient Babylon.Saturn Day Babylonians considered unlucky;this day it instructed not to engage in any business, and he was called "Shabbat" - peace.At the same time it was moved to the end of the week.The name passed in Hebrew, Arabic, Slavic, some Western European languages.In many countries, a rest day moved, but the days are still underway on Saturday.So, a day of rest for Muslims (the last day of the week) coincides with our Friday, but the name of the "first day" in Arabic, refers to Sunday.
Some peoples numbering of days was very curious.Thus, in the Georgian language (almost like in the saying "he has seven Fridays of the week") turned out to be ... five Saturdays.Besides a Saturday - the Sabbath, there are "second Sabbath" (orshabati) - Monday, "Third Saturday" (samshabati) -vtornik, "fourth Saturday" (othshabati) - Wednesday, the "fifth Sabbath" (hutshabati) - Thursday.Friday and Sunday are called the "Paraskevi" and "Kvira" similar name in Greek (paraskeun, kyuriake).The first word means "cooking" (meaning the preparation of a rest day - Saturday; later it was associated with the name of St. Paraskeva-Friday), the second means "the Lord's day."(We note in passing that here we are talking about the modern Greek name, set under the influence of Christianity; the Greeks earlier referred to Sunday as "the first of the week».)
In the Persian calendar Saturdays even six a week: shambe, yek-shambe ( "first Saturday") - Sunday, up-shambe (" second Saturday ") - Monday, se-shambe (" third Saturday ") - Tuesday, chehar-shambe (" fourth Saturday ") - Wednesday, Pend shambe (" fifth Saturday ")-Thursday.Day corresponding to Friday, is called "Jaume" ( "day of the compound" - a sacred day for Muslims).
Persian names of the days of the week are widely spread.They are taken by many people in our country (in Azerbaijan, Bashkortostan, Central Asia, and others.).
numbered several days a week and in the Slavic languages, but through these days peoples are "after Sunday."(It should be noted that the decision on Sunday celebration took Roman Emperor Constantine in 321, he ordered that "... all the judges and all the craftsmen in the venerable day of the Sun rested", but due to persistence of the traditions of the last day of the week is Saturday considered a long time.) Once upon a time Sunday Slavic peoples called the week (the day on which a rest from business, do not do anything).This name is preserved in all Slavic languages other than Russian;the names of the remaining days are the same, as seen from the plate
In Russianthe name of the day passed on the entire seven-day (Week as it was once called).Thus, on Monday - a "(first) day after the week" (cf .: "pm" mean "afternoon"), Tuesday - the second day, on Thursday - the fourth Friday - the fifth and the environment really was an average day.Interestingly, in the Old Slavonic language and found more ancient its name - tretiynik.
last day of the week at the time was considered Saturday and in England.Proof of this are the words from the book of Geoffrey of Monmouth (XII century.): "We honor the gods otchih - Saturn, Jupiter and the other ruling the world, but especially of Mercury, which in their language call Boden.Our ancestors dedicated his fourth day of the week, which is even now call on his name vodenesdey.After him, we honor the goddess, the most powerful of all, and bearing the name of Freya, which are the same ancestors of our dedicated the sixth day of the week, and on its behalf, we call him Frida. "
In conclusion, the seven-day week has spread in the Roman Empire under Emperor Augustus (63 BC -.... '14 BC) in connection with a passion astrology Romans.In particular, in Pompeii wall paintings found seven gods of days of the week.The very same widespread and "persistence" in seven day period is due, apparently, to the presence of certain psychophysiological human body rhythms appropriate duration.