«This man has made the truth in relation to the prediction of phenomena of the sky, for the movement of light and weather changes are quite consistent with its data;so most of my time to the Greeks enjoyed its 19-year circle ... »
So wrote about Methoni historian Diodorus in I.BC.e.Indeed, the new calendar system was developed Meton to the smallest detail, including such an important aspect of it, as a rule of alternation of full and empty months.As evidenced by Geminus, it was the fact that the first theory is the months of 30 days, then discarded the days of the 64 th, 128 th, 192 th, 256 th, and so on. D. (T. E., Each 64-day).To find out the number of incomplete months (29 days), it was enough to their total number is multiplied by 30 and divide the result by 64. The incomplete were the months after the multiplication of the serial number from the beginning of cycle 30 and dividing the result by 64 gave less residue30. If the remainder is greater than 60 turned out, that both active and had the prece
And yet it seems that the ancient Greeks or did not understand the essence of the opening Meton, have not learned to use it, whether consciously rejected it.In particular, only nine years after Meton "put in place" a Cullen-dar-parapegmu, on the stage of the Greek theater there was a comedy of Aristophanes 'Clouds'.That's what they say clouds Athenians, who vainly try to order of the days on the Moon:
Studies have shown that directly after the opening metons cycle, and a hundred years later, and in the middle of the III.n.e.Greeks used less accurate 8-year cycle ... And somehow still coordinate their civil calendar of the moon, they are occasionally added to the month or thrown out of it one or two days.There is ample evidence that after Meton difference in the number of months at various lunar calendars even reached 8-10 days ...
It turns out that 19-year cycle was unsuitable for the Greeks, as it was inconvenient for him to determine the time of their most importantholidays, which, on the contrary, conveniently fit into the 8-year cycle: the Olympic games - every 4 years (ie twice in 8 years..), the Pythian games at Delphi - once in 8 years (ie, in two four-yearnumber of months was different, 49 + 50, a special role is not playing), in Athens in general were five events, repeated after four years.That's why many prominent Greek astronomers after Meton (including Eudoxus and Eratosthenes) sought to improve it oktaeteridu, developing, in particular, the 16- and 160-year cycles, but all these attempts were a step backwards compared with the cycle of Meton.That is why the Roman writer Censorinus in 238 AD.e.He noted that in his time the 8-year cycle of the Greeks remained the most popular ...
result is known: if we talk about the IV-I centuries.BC.E., The "Athenian calendar and the time when the lunar year was dominated throughout Hellas completely subjected to such fluctuations that now appears, not even possible to establish the true course of Athenian vremyaschisleniya 3 - 1 cc.to p.X. »Specifically about the Athenian calendar, a prominent expert on the history of E. Bickerman (USA) writes: "Even in the II century.BC.e.adding months made so erratically that in two years, following one after another, could be extra months ... In practice, the days were excluded and included arbitrary.The main reason for such a fitting calendar was that the majority of religious festivals was fixed in the official calendar. "And "the Athenians could rename month Munihion first in Antesterion and then Boedromion to enable Demetrius Poliokretu (this outstanding leader, who later became governor of Macedonia, conquered Athens in 307 BC. SEs IK) induring his short stay in the city to meet with a small (celebrated in Antesterione) and large (celebrated in Boedromione) Eleusinian mysteries. "So, finally: "To compare a date with Julian Athenian is possible only in exceptional cases ...".
The Macedonian calendar days of Alexander the insertion of the 13th month as made once every three years, but clear rules for this was not.Here is what, for example, the ancient Greek historian Plutarch (c. 46-126 years. BC. E.) In the "Life of Alexander."Before the start of the battle of Alexander to the Persian king Darius III at Granicus (334 BC. E.) I was to come the new month Desios that the Greeks considered unlucky.To get out of the predicament, Alexander decided ... to insert an extra 13th month, t. E. Repeat again Artemisios month.Of course, "then" he could not win the battle ...
And yet surprisingly, what to speak of the calendars of the people who gave the world famous astronomers: Aristarchus of Samos, Hipparchus and Ptolemy ... However, with.290 for 90 years.BC.e.general data on the Greek calendar a bit.They almost did not survive for reconstruction calendars big eastern cities, conquered by Alexander.
in 86 BC.e.Greeks have lost their political independence.After this correction was "floating" with respect to the Julian calendar months in a calendar has not been amended and the beginning of the year.In fact, usually the Athenian new year to the 1st day of the month Gekatomveona began in July (and sometimes even in late June).But in the I millennium BC.e.than later lived the author describing the Athenian calendar, the next July he defended the beginning of the year.Thus, according to Plutarch (the end of I in. BC. E.), The Athenian New Year began about August 1, in the III-IV centuries.n.e.It has moved its beginning as early as September, and even October, and in the IX-X vv.- January.The writers of the XIV-XVI centuries.identify Gekatomveon month to April.Thus, over fifteen hundred years, the beginning of the Athenian lunar-solar calendar shifted from the summer solstice to the spring equinox.
This is precisely the case when an 8-year-tion cycle is not coordinated with the annual movement of the sun in the sky, as in every 157 years oktaeteri da with respect to the solar year is delayed for 30 days.And if the "floating oktaeterida" was made of 84 BC.e., and then the beginning of the year accounted for around July 1, then about 73 AD.e.It had already as of August 1, about 235 g.- September 1, 392 g.- October 1, 554 g.- November 1, 711 g.- December 1, and so on. d., and finally, in 1344 Mr..- 1 April.
In many cities in the Middle East and after the adoption of the Julian calendar resist Macedonian month names.Moreover, if usually lunisolar calendar year Macedonian (1 Dios) began in September, close to the autumnal equinox, the sun (Julian) calendar beginning of the year, in most cases appeared to move closer to the winter solstice, or even for him.For example, in Ephesus 1 Dios was fixed for 23 September, but it had in Damascus on October 18 and in Antioch and Constantinople, as of November 1.It follows that in the latter two cities before the adoption of the Julian calendar was used for about 200 years oktaeterida free.Later, however, in Constantinople Macedonian month names were replaced by Roman.
way, custom lead through a sequence of days in the month from 1 to 30 (31) came to us through Constantinople from Antioch.
In general, as can be seen, the ancient Greeks their calendar quite satisfied.It is known that in Athens it was used also in a VI.n.e., and in the Byzantine Empire, until the end of the VII century.n.e., t. e. for 600 years after the introduction of the Julian calendar.Moreover, in XIII.Byzantine historian George Pahimeres proposed to replace the names of the months of the Julian calendar corresponding Greek names.On the eve of the collapse of the Byzantine Empire (1453), another Byzantine historian George Pletho offered at all to return to the lunar-solar calendar with the beginning of the year on the new moon, which would have had to close for the winter solstice.These projects arose due to the inaccuracy of the Julian calendar.