Account time in ancient China

August 12, 2017 17:51 | School

lunisolar calendar in ancient times used the peoples of China and India.The people who settled the shores of the great rivers of the Yellow River, the Indus and the Ganges, scored on day shifts phases of the moon.But their daily needs, the entire tenor of their life, their agricultural work cycle forced as carefully as possible to determine the onset of the annual or other seasons, t. E. Harmonize their lives with the sun.

In "Kayyuanchzhandan" containing the description of the history of China from ancient times to the IX.n.e., refers to the calendar, compiled during the time of semi-legendary Emperor Huangdi 1 (2696-2597 gg. BC. e.).It is known that in the Chinese imperial court had special officials whose responsibilities included drawing up the calendar and observation of celestial bodies.As a result, regular and prolonged observation, it was found that the appearance of the sky in the evening or in the morning indicative of certain stars - "cheng" is repeated in rhythm with the onset of one or the

other of the agricultural season.This made it possible to solve the inverse problem: Observations "cheng" to inform farmers of the upcoming attack one or another season.

These indicative stars to ancient Chinese astronomers were the star of "Dakho" (Antares and Scorpio), the constellation "Zahn" (Orion) and "Beidou" ( "Northern Bucket" - Big Dipper).So, akronichesky (evening, just after sunset) Antares rise occurred around the time of the vernal equinox, the passage of stars across the meridian in the evening just after sunset point to the middle of the summer.As the Soviet scholar PA Elders, the star eventually came to be considered a deity - a holy heavenly dragon, patron saint of the Chinese nation.The appearance of the east in the evening just after the Sun "Zahn" constellation approach meant the middle of winter.

But, apparently, the ancient Chinese judged by the position of the handle of the Big Dipper Bucket most clearly on the time of year.Thus, in one era of ancient Chinese records Xia (... 2205-1766 BCE) says: "In the 1st month Dipper handle facing down, in the twilight 6th month can be seen that the handle is turned upwards Bucket ... '.

Ancient Chinese astronomers have established the duration of the synodic month at 29.5 days and the solar year of 366 days.So, in the book "Shujin" in the chapter "Yao-tien" ( "Bishop Yao Charter"), the record relating to the time period between 2109 and 2068 years.BC.E., Said: "It is widely known that three hundred days and six decades, and six days constitute the entire year."And since the solar year is incommensurable with the lunar month, the "four seasons combined plug month."

noteworthy (in terms of its value to the needs of agriculture and animal husbandry) calendar "Xia-xiao-zhen" used in the era of Xia.It specifies the seasons and months, in accordance with the position in the firmament of this or that constellation, as well as to the state of animals, birds, trees, grasses, etc. Here are fragments:..

«I month.At the beginning of the night the constellation of "Chang" is in the middle of the sky, the Big Dipper tail facing downwards.Earlier this year, farmers are prepared to go out and plow the fields of disengagement;they sacrifice the inventor of the plow ... After the sun warms the cold and everything thaws.Get out of the field rat holes ... Opushayutsya willow.Hens sit on and hatch chicks.At this time, there is a great wind ...

III month.At the beginning of the night the constellation "Zahn" lies in the west.Pray about the harvest of wheat, because this month there are small drought.Blooming poplar ..., lambs grow.Field rats turned into quail ...

IX month.Sow winter wheat.Sparrows, disappearing into the sea, turning into an oyster. "

long been in China was made to divide the month "three decades (" xun ") Ordinal notation days or decades, as they are called Chinese" ten heavenly "Stump's" (or "branches") are as follows: chia, and,bin, dyn, y, chi, LEG, blue, jen, kuei.To indicate the months of the year used 12 characters ( "twelve earthly branches"): chi, Chou, Yin, Mao, Chen, sy, y, wei, shen, Yu, Xu, hai, which corresponded to the names of the constellations (chi-ram chow -.. Taurus, etc.), each of these characters correspond to the name of the animal:.. ji - shu (mouse), Chow - nude (cow), yin - Hu (tiger), etc. They also indicate the time of day: chi - with23 to 1 hour, chow -.. from 1 to 3 hours, etc. Thus, the day starts at midnight, divided into 12 double hours each double hour-eight parts of "ke", each "ke" - 15"hubi".Therefore, the smallest unit of time equal to our game.

from cycle to cycle

next to the calendar, in which the number of months in a year, and the number of days in the month were different, in ancient China around in XXVI.BC.e.It existed through time in cycles.At first he only used for counting days, later it was used for numbering years.Perhaps the source here was the idea that the world is made up of five elements ( "elements") - water, fire, metal, wood and earth, who supposedly are in motion, relationship and cyclical subordination: water extinguishes fire, fire melts metal, metal cuts wood, wood grows in the earth, the earth will give birth to the water.Each of the elements united by two "heavenly stump" (or was presented in two states - male and female).

decimal cycle "heavenly branches" and duodecimal cycle "earthly branches" and it was 60-year cycle, as shown in the Table.

Table.60-year-old Chinese cyclical calendar

Periods

Cyclic sign

«Heavenly branches»

Animals

My (Tree)

Ho(fire)

Tu (earth)

Jin (metal)

Shui (water)

Jia

and

2

Bin

Dean

have

5

Ji

Geng

Xin

Zhen

Gui

1

3

4

6

7

8

9

10

1

Ji

1

13

al

37

49

Shu

(mouse)

II

Chow

2

14

26

38

50

Nu

(to

rova)

III

Yin

51

3

15

27

39

Hu

(tiger)

IV

Mao

52

4

16

28

40

the

(hare)

V

Chen

41

53

5

17

29

Lun

(core

con)

VI

Si

42

54

6

18

30

Shae

(snake)

VII

have

31

43

55

7

19

Ma

(horse)

VIII

Wei

32

44

56

8

20

Yang

(sheep)

IX

Shen

21

33

45

57

9

Howe

(monkey

yang)

X

Yu

22

34

46

58

10

Ji

(ku

Riza)

XI

Xu

11

23

35

47

59

Gow

(with

tank)

XII

High

12

24

36

48

60

Zhu

(SVR

Nya)

Every day (or year)in this cycle I had the name consisting of a combination of two circular plates.Counting the days for the 60-day cycle, the ancient Chinese prepared for the beginning of the agricultural season, made sacrifices in honor of the departed ancestors, and so on. D.

found animal bones and tortoise shells carved with signs 60-year cycle, which belong to the era of Shan-In (1766-1122 BC.).During the beginning of the cyclic bill passed in 2397-th (according to other sources - 2697 minutes) BC.e.e.BC.e.