Calendars neighbors China

August 12, 2017 17:51 | School

60-year-old scoring system years, albeit with some modifications, has spread from China and neighboring countries - Mongolia, Vietnam, Korea, Japan.In particular, the Mongols colors were used instead of the five elements: blue, red, yellow, white and black, and even for years in the form of a "bluish", "red", etc. At the heart of 60-year-old Mongolian cycle also lay 19..year cycle.It was adopted, however, and other shorthand way s account 12-year cycle in which each year was named a specific animal, as can be seen from Table.

Table.s names 12-year Mongolian calendar animal cycle

sequence number, the

Mongolian name

Russian names

Modulo 12

1

hulganaI lived

year mouse

4

2

Uher lived

year cow

5

3

leopard lived

year of the tiger

6

4

tuulay lived

year hare

7

5

Luu lived

year of the dragon

8

6

mogoy lived

year of the snake

9

7

Maureen lived

yearhorse

10

8

Khonina lived

year sheep

11

9

Mechin lived

year monkey

0

10

Tahia lived

year chicken

1

11

nokhoy lived

year dog

2

12

Hacha lived

year of the pig

3

chronology for this calendar is conducted in Mongolia in 1027 BC.e.The months of the calendar names are not.When dating indicates the number, the serial number and the number of months of the year with the addition of its name in the 12-year cycle.This latest find by dividing the number of the year in the Gregorian calendar is 12;the remainder of the division, in accordance with Table.16, and gives the name of the Year:. "10th of the 5th moon (.. That is, the month) 953, the tiger '

To coincide with the Chinese (1924, 1984 and so on. E. The years) Vietnam the 60-year cycles.Ten names "heavenly cycle" here are: Zap, Al, Byn, Melons, May, Kia, Kang, Tan, Yum, Kui, "earth loop" - fifth (mouse), Shiu (buffalo), Zan (Tiger), Mao(cat), Tyn (dragon), you (the serpent), Ngo (horse), Mui (goat), Tang (monkey), Zaw (chicken), Tuat (the dog) and Hoi (pig).And here in 1981 - the year of "metal and chicken."In our time, however, the official calendar is the Gregorian in Vietnam.

population of India today said more than two hundred languages.It is understood that in the past, every family develops its own calendar.Therefore, until recently, to determine the dates of the holidays in this country used about 35 different calendars, mainly lunisolar.

On one of the most original calendars, used in some parts of India for more than 1500 years, it is worth mentioning separately.The basis of its duration stellar year was put, t. E. The time interval after which the sun moving along the ecliptic, returns to the same star.But a stellar year on the day .01416 = 20.4 minutes longer than the tropical year.This means that for the time of 1: 0.01416 = 60.3 years in a calendar beginning of the true, the tropical year is shifted by one day ago.Conversely, the calendar year, which began 1,500 years ago on the day of the vernal equinox (March 21) now comes on the 22-23 days later (around April 12-13).The year was divided into six seasons, each season - for two months, and the duration of the two summer months reached 32 days, whereas two zimnih- for 29-30 days.Thus it was displayed for a long time noticed by Indian astronomers uneven motion of the sun along the ecliptic.

In 1957 in India for civil and social goals adopted unified national calendar (Table.), In which the length of the year is taken to be the length of the tropical year.

months Number

month name

number of days in the month

beginning of the month in the Gregorian calendar

1

Chaitra

30 (31)

22 (21) On March

2

Vaisakha

31

April 21

3

Dzhaishtha

31

May 22

4

asadhu

31

June 22

5

Sravan

31

23July

6

Bhadra

31

August 23

7

Azvina

30

September 23

8

Kartika

30

October 23

9

Agrahayyana

30

November 22

10

Pause

30

December 22

11

Magha

30

January 21

12

Phalguna

30

February 20

calendar year is divided into 12 months of 30 and 31 days and consists of 365 days.In a leap year of 366 days and a month of Chaitra there is 31 days.New Year (1 Chaitra) begins on the day following the day of the vernal equinox.In the simple year it coincides with the 22 March in a leap - from 21 March.s account in this calendar began in 78 AD.e.(The so-called era of the Saka).To determine leap year to the Saka era is added the number 78, and if the sum is divisible by 4, then a leap year.If, however, after the addition to the year of the Saka era would be 78 times the amount of 100, the year is a leap year only if the sum is divisible by 400. In other words, the alternation of simple and leap years in this calendar coincides with their alternation in the Gregorian.

Gregorian calendar used in India since 1757 Currently, almost all emerging in India books, newspapers and magazines dating back to the Gregorian calendar.Can also double dating: according to the Gregorian calendar and local committee, civilian.In Japan, the Gregorian calendar was introduced in 1973

Fig.Armillary sphere Ancient Beijing Observatory

was compiled catalog of stars, set the length of the solar year 365.25 days.In the middle age Chuntsyu (722-481 gg. BC. E.) Was held calendar reform, legalized insert seven months in 19 years.Thus, the "Metonic Cycle" was discovered by Chinese astronomers much earlier.In 366 BC.e.with the new moon, which coincided with the first day of "Jia-chi" for cyclic tables, Calendar "Zhu-an-Xu Li" was introduced, in which the year began with the winter solstice, month-to new moon day - from dawn.Since the middle of the III.BC.e.Paste the 13th month was not carried out after the 12th and after the 6th month of the year.Around this time, a famous Chinese philosopher Mencius (... 372-289 BCE) said: "... although the sky is far higher and the stars, but by examining their manifestations, we can, sitting at home, identifywhich day a thousand years ago it was the solstice. "

continuously improve through time seasonal.During the Qin Dynasty (246-201 gg. BC. E.) The solar year was divided into 24 seasons, depending on the position of the sun on the ecliptic.According to this calendar periods determined by the sowing and harvesting of other agricultural work.

order not to be late with carrying out of spring field work, the residents of Chinese villages devised various methods for determining the beginning of spring.For example, starting from the date of the winter solstice is nine characters for the nine dashes in each (these characters could mean a phrase; "in front of the window a tree waiting for spring wind") and spent one stick a day.When all the characters were drawn, which meant that spring came ...

in 104 BC.e.China's new calendar system, "Do Tai Chi", known as "santunskoy" was adopted.In it the length of the synodic month was taken to be 29 days, the number of days in the 19-year cycle is 1 "tsan" - 6939.753.It was followed by the length of a year 365.2502 days.Years with false months were 3 rd, 6 th, 9 th, 11 th, 14 th, 17 th, 19 th.the insertion time of the 13th month was determined on the basis of astronomical observations, as have the following conditions were met: the winter solstice has always had to fall on the 11th moon, summer - the 5th, autumn ravnodenstvie- on the 9th and the spring - on the2nd.Months of the 11th, the 12th and the 1st is not doubled.

course, this calendar was far from perfect.But, as the PA Elders, each new imperial dynasty in China, and sometimes individual rulers considered it their duty to offer a new calendar system or make one or more changes to the existing in order to perpetuate his name (the calendar was named after the emperor proposed it).This often led not to an improvement but to deterioration of the calendar.Thus, in nine AD.e.one of the princes "to accelerate the movement of time" ordered not to enter this year an extra month, although the rules in force such a paste was provided.84 AD.e.Emperor Zheng Di to get a favorable astrological predictions, ordered to introduce a "correction" in the motion of the planets ....In general, only for a thousand years to 1100 AD.e.calendar reform in China carried out 70 times, 13 times changed chronology system.

in the XI century.n.e.astronomer Shen Kuo (1031-1095) made an attempt to introduce a purely solar calendar, in which the duration of the month is determined solely by the movement of the sun along the ecliptic.This proposal, however, has caused a fierce attack on the astronomer, and the calendar was rejected.In 1281 the famous Chinese astronomer Guo Shoujing (1231-1316) was the calendar "Do Shoushi", in which the length of the tropical year is taken to be 365.2425 days, t. E. Only 26 more than its true value.The accuracy of this calendar was the same as Gregorian introduced in Europe three centuries later.60 "candareen '(minutes), every minute - -

In 1670 the division of the day into 24 hours, each hour was introduced in China in the 60" Miao "(seconds).The Gregorian calendar was adopted in China since January 1, 1912 .;since 1949, after the founding of the People's Republic of the calendar began to be used in the country as an official, although now many newspapers and magazines come with a double date - according to the Gregorian calendar and the 60-year calendar cycle.