The Roman calendar
Today, all peoples of the world enjoy the solar calendar, practically inherited from the ancient Romans.But if in its current form, this calendar is almost perfectly matches the annual motion of the Earth around the Sun, then its original form can only say "worse was nowhere."And all, probably because, as noted by the Roman poet Ovid (43 BC. E.-17 AD. Oe.), The ancient Romans knew better weapons than the stars ...
agricultural calendar. Like their neighbors, the Greeks, the Romans defined the beginning of its work on the rising and setting of certain stars and their groups, t. E. They are connected to your calendar with the annual change in the form of the starry sky.Perhaps the most important "benchmark" when it was rising and setting (morning and evening), Pleiades star cluster, which in Rome was called Virgil.Start here many fieldwork associated with Favonius - warm west wind that begins to blow in February (Feb. 3-4 by the modern calendar).According to Pliny, "Spring starts with him" in Rome.Here
«between Favonius and the vernal equinox pruned trees, vines ... ditch between the vernal equinox and the rising of Virgil (the morning of the Pleiades rise observed in mid-May), weed the fields... chop willow, enclose meadows ..., should be planted olive trees. "
«Between the (morning) rising Virgil and the summer solstice dig or plow the young vines, pinch vines, mowing feed.At the summer solstice and the rising of the Dog (from June 22 to July 19), most busy harvest.Between Dog sunrise and autumnal equinox should mow straw (Romans first high cut off ears, but the chaff he mowed a month). "
«It is believed that one should not start before sowing (autumn) equinox because if the bad weather starts, the seeds will rot ... From Favonius before sunrise Arcturus (from 3 to 16 February) to dig new ditches, make pruning in the vineyards".
should, however, bear in mind that this calendar was filled with the most incredible superstition.So, it should fertilize meadows in early spring not only as the new moon, when the new moon had not yet seen ( "then the grass will grow in the same way as the new moon"), and on the field will not be weeds.Eggs under the hen recommended to enclose only in the first quarter phase of the moon.According to Pliny, "any cutting, truncation, haircut will bring less harm if they do, when the moon is on the wane."Therefore, those who decided to get a haircut when "the moon is coming," ventured bald.And if at a specified time to cut the leaves on the tree, it will soon lose all the leaves.Felled tree at this time threatened to rot ...
Months and days are in them. There are conflicting and some uncertainty about ancient Roman calendar data is largely due to the fact that the very ancient writers in this issue are divided.Part of this will be illustrated below.First, the focus on the overall structure of the ancient Roman calendar, established in the middle of I in.BC.e.
At the specified time year of the Roman calendar, with a total duration of 355 days consisted of 12 months with distribution days in them:
Martius 31 Kvintilis 31 november 29
Aprilis 29 Sekstilis 29 Detsember 29
Maius 31 September 29 Januarius 29
Junius 29 Oktober 31 Februarius 28
About Mercedonius month extension will be discussed later.
As can be seen, with the exception of one, all the months of the Roman calendar had an odd number of days.This is due to the superstitious notions of the ancient Romans, though happy odd numbers, while even bring misfortune.The year began with the first day of March.This month was named Martius after Mars, which was originally worshiped as the god of agriculture and animal husbandry, and later as a god of war, designed to protect the peaceful labor.The second month was named from the Latin Aprilis aperire - «disclose», as the buds on the trees are revealed in this month, or apricus words - "warmed by the sun."He was dedicated to the goddess of beauty Venus.The third month was dedicated to the goddess of the earth Maius Maya, fourth Junius - the queen of heaven Juno, patroness of women, the wife of Jupiter.The names of six further months were associated with their position in the calendar: Kvintilis - fifth Sekstilis - sixth, September - the seventh, Oktober - eighth, november - ninth Detsember - tenth.
name Januarius - the penultimate month of the Roman calendar - there are believed to be from janua words - "input", "door": The month was dedicated to the god Janus, who, according to one version, was considered the god of the sky, to open the gate the sun at the beginning ofthe day and close them at the end.In Rome, he was devoted to the 12 altars - the number of months in a year.He was the god of the entrance, all undertakings.Romans portrayed him with two faces: one facing forward, as if God sees the future, the second, facing backward, contemplates the past.Finally, the 12th month was dedicated to the god of the underworld Februus.The very same its name comes, apparently, from februare- «cleaned" but perhaps the word feralia.So the Romans called Come February memorial week.At the end of it, at the end of the year they performed a cleansing ritual (lustratio populi) «for the reconciliation of the gods to the people."Perhaps because of this, they could not do insert extra days at the end of the year, and made it, as we shall see later, between 23 and 24 February ...
Romans used a very peculiar way of days in the month of invoice.The first day of the month they called Kalends - calendae - salare the word - to proclaim, as the beginning of each month and, in general, priests (pontiffs) publicly proclaimed at public meetings (the comitia salata).The seventh day in the four long months or fifth in the remaining eight nazyzalsya Nonae (nonae) nonus- on the ninth day (inclusive bill!) Up to the full moon.Nona approximately coincided with the first quarter phase of the moon.The nones of each month pontiffs declared people, what holidays are celebrated in it, and in February the Nones to the same - or will not insert extra days will be made.15th day (full moon) in the long and 13th in the short months called ids - idus (of course, in these last months of the Ides should refer to the 14 th day, and the Nones - on the 6th, but because the Romans did not likeeven numbers ...).The day before the Kalends, and Nonae ids called Eve (pridie), for example pridie Kalendas Februarias - the eve of the February calends, ie, on 29 January...
This ancient Romans believed the days of forward, as we do, but in the opposite direction: so many days left before the non, or going calends.(Sami Nones, Ides and Kalends also included in this account!) So, on January 2 - is «IV day of the non", as in January stepped Nones 5th of January 7, - «VII Day of Eid."January has 29 days, so it was called Idus 13th number, and the 14th was already «XVII Kalendas Februarias» -17-th day before the Kalends of February.
next to the number of months put down the first eight letters of the alphabet: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, which is cyclically repeated in the same manner throughout the whole year.These periods are called "devyatidnevkami" - nundinami (nundi-nae - noveni dies), since the bill includes the last day of the previous eight-day week.Earlier this year, one of these "nine" days - nundinus - declared trade or market day, in which the villagers could come to the city to the market.The Romans for a long time, as though eager to ensure that did not coincide with nundinusy Nonae to avoid excessive concentrations of people in the city.There was also a superstition that if nundinus same Kalends of January, the year will be unhappy.
addition nundinnyh letters every day in the ancient Roman calendar designated one more of the following letters: F, N, C, the NP as EN.In the days marked by the letters F (dies fasti; fasti - schedule presences days in court), judicial institutions were open and could be hearings ( "praetor without violating the religious requirements were allowed to pronounce the words do, dico, addiso -" agree "(appoint court), "point out" (the law), "awarded").Over time, the letter F began to labeling and during the holidays, games and so on. D. The days marked with the letter N (dies nefasti), were forbidden in them for religious reasons it was impossible to convene, hold hearings and pass sentence.In the days of C (dies comitialis - «the days of assembly") occurred public meetings and the meetings of the Senate.Days NP (nefastus parte) were "partially forbidden", days EN (intercisus) considered nefasti morning and evening, and fasti in the intervening hours.During the time of Emperor Augustus in the Roman calendar days, there were the F - 45, N-55, NP-70, C-184, EN - 8. Three days of the year had a name dies fissi ( «split» - from fissiculo - considered cuts sacrificedanimals), two of which (on 24 March and 24 May to "designated as QRCF: quando rex comitiavit fas -« when the sacrificial king presides "in the assembly, a third (15 June) - QSDF: quando stercus delatum fas -« when the dirt taken outand the litter "of the temple of Vesta -... Roman deities of the hearth and the fire in the temple of Vesta eternal fire maintained, hence it took in the new colonies and settlements days fissi considered nefasti until after the priest
days List fasti per month for a long time proclaimed ain its 1st day - this is evidence of how in ancient times the patricians and priests held in his hands all the most important means of regulating social life was only in 305 BC a prominent politician Gnaeus Flavius unveiled on a white board on the...Roman forum dies fasti list for a year, making a well-known distribution of days in a year.Since that time, the establishment of public places carved on the stone table boards calendar has become commonplace.
Alas, as noted in the "Encyclopedic Dictionary" FA Brockhaus and IA Ephron (SPb., 1895 m. The XIV, p. 15) "Roman calendar is controversial and is the subject of much speculation."The above can be attributed to the question of when the Romans started to count days.According to the eminent philosopher and politician Cicero (.. 106-43 BC) and Ovid day the Romans supposedly began in the morning, while the Censorinus - midnight.The latter is explained by the fact that the Romans, many celebrations ended with certain ritual acts, which if it was necessary to "silence of the night."That is why they are attached to the first half of the night has passed the day ...
in 355 days, the duration was shorter than the tropical 10,24-2 days.But in the economic life of the Romans played an important role agricultural work - planting, harvesting, etc. And in order to keep the beginning of the year near the same season, they do insert extra days...At the same time the Romans from some superstitious motives did not insert an entire month apart, and every second year between the VII and VI day before the calends of March (between 23 and 24 February) "wedged" alternately 22 or 23 days.As a result, the number of days in the Roman calendar alternated in this order:
377 (355 + 22) days,
378 (355+ 23) days.
If the insertion was made, then February 14 in the afternoon called «XI Kal.intercalares », February 23 (" Eve ") marked terminals - a holiday in honor of Terminus - the god mezhey and border posts, considered sacred.The next day started like the new moon, which was included, and the remainder of February.The first day was «Kal.. Intercal », hereinafter - the day" IV of to the non "(pop intercal.), 6th number of" months "- a day of" VIII of up to Eid »(idus intercal.), 14th - a day of" the XV (orXVI) Kal.Martias ».
Plug days (dies intercalares) were called Mercedonius months, although the ancient writers called him gusset month - interkalyariem (intercalaris).The word "Mercedonius" comes from as «merces edis» - «payment for work": it was as if the month in which payments were made to the tenants of the property owners.
As can be seen, as a result of such insertions average duration of the Roman calendar year was equal to 366.25 days - for one day longer true.Therefore, from time to time the day of the calendar had to be thrown out.
contemporaries. Let us now see what is said about the history of his own calendar Roman historians, writers and public figures.First of all, M. Fulvius Nobilior (former consul in 189 BC. E.), Writer and scholar Marcus Terentius Varro (116-27 years. BC. E.), Writers Censorinus (III century AD.)and Macrobius (V in. BC. e.) claimed that the Roman calendar year consisted of 10 months and contained only 304 days.This Nobilior believed that the 11th and 12th months (January and February) added to the calendar year, about 690 BC.e.semi-legendary dictator of Rome Numa Pompilius (died c. 673 BC. e.).Varro, however, thought that the 10-month year, the Romans used another "to Romulus," and so 37-year rule of the king (753-716 gg. BC. E.), He has already indicated as complete (for Z65 1/4, but doesnot 304 days).According to Varro, the ancient Romans seemed to know how to harmonize their working life with the change of the constellations in the sky.So, they say, they believed that "the first day of spring falls in the sign of Aquarius, the summer - in the sign of Taurus, of autumn - Leo, winter - the Scorpion."
According to Licinius (tribune of the people in '73 BC. E.), Romulus created a calendar of 12 months, and the rules of the insertion of additional days.But according to Plutarch, the ancient Roman calendar year consisted of ten months, but the number of days they ranged from 16 to 39, so that then the year consisted of 360 days.Further, if Numa Pompilius introduced the custom to insert an extra month to 22 days.
From Macrobius we have evidence that the time remaining after a 10-month year to 304 days, for months the Romans did not share, but simply waited for the arrival of spring, to start counting again for months.Numa Pompilius if divided this period in January and February, and February has set January.Numa also introduced a 12-month lunar year of 354 days, but soon added another 355-day.It Numa allegedly set an odd number of days in months.As argued below Macrobius, Romans considered the years on the moon, and when they decided to associate these with the solar year, it started in every four years to embed 45 days - two intercalary month at 22 and 23 days, insert it at the end of the 2nd and 4ths.In this case if (and this is the only evidence of this kind) to align the calendar with the sun the Romans excluded from the account for 24 days every 24 year.Macrobius believed that the insertion of the Romans borrowed from the Greeks and that it was made around 450 BC.e.Until then, he says, the Romans scored lunar years, and the full moon sozpadalo Happy Eid.
According to Plutarch, that the months of the Roman calendar, with a numeric name at the beginning of the year in March, ends on December, and is proof that the year once consisted of 10 months.But, as noted by the same Plutarch elsewhere, this fact could be the cause of such an opinion ...
And it is appropriate to quote the words of DA Lebedev: "In a very witty and highly probable assumption GF Ungerthe Romans called the proper names of 6 months, from January to June, because they account for the half of the year, when the day is increasing, why she is considered lucky and only on it in ancient times comes and all the holidays (of which usually receive their name of the month);remaining six months of the corresponding half of the year, which increased the night and that is why, as unfavorably, could not cope any celebrations not mean that special name, but simply considered only the first of the month of March.Complete analogy to this is the fact that the lunar year
Romans celebrated only three lunar phases: new moon (Kalendae), 1st quarter (hitting) and full moon (idus).These phases correspond to the half of the month, when the light of the moon increases mark the beginning, middle and end of the increase.Last quarter of the moon falling on the middle of the half of the month, when the moon light decreases, the Romans did not interest and therefore did not have them and no name. "
From Romulus to Caesar.In ancient Greek parapegmah actually combined two calendars described previously: one otschityzal days of the phases of the Moon, the second indicates a change in the form of the sky, which was necessary to the ancient Greeks to establish the terms of one or other field work.But the same problem stood in front of the ancient Romans.It is therefore possible that the writers mentioned above noted changes in different types of calendars - lunar and solar, and in this case, to bring them the message "common denominator" in general is impossible.
There is no doubt that the Romans, in accordance with the life cycle of the solar year, it could count the days and months just for "the year of Romulus" in 304 days.