calendar reform held in 46 BC.e.Roman High Priest, commander and writer Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 years. BC. e.).Before that Caesar visited Egypt and met with Egyptian solar calendar, and even he was somewhat extant treatises on astronomy.Development of a new calendar has carried out a group of Alexandrian astronomers headed by Sozigenom.
based calendar, later received the name of Julian, put the solar year, the duration of which was taken to be 365.25 days.But in a calendar year can only be a whole number of days.Therefore instructed to consider three out of every four years for 365 days, in the fourth - 366 days.
As before Mercedonius a month, and now this one day decided to "hide" between 24 and 25 of February and to call him bis sextum Kal.Mart - «double sixth before the Kalends of March."Complemented by a year later was called annus bissextus, from whence our word leap.
Julius Caesar has streamlined the number of days in months on this principle: an odd month has 31 days, even - 30 February the
the time of the reform of the calendar (and celebrations associated with it) had gone ahead of the changing seasons in the 90 days, so that on 1 January of the calendar year had to fall on 3 October.In this regard, three months have been inserted in the last calendar year old: Mercedonius of 23 days and two months unnamed (days 33 and 34) and between november Detsemberom.This year was called the "year of confusion» (annus confusiosus).Recall that in Romans celebrated Saturnalia Detsembere - a holiday in honor of Satur-na, who was considered the god of crops and fertility.The end of the festival and has been aligned with the winter solstice.In addition, Julius Caesar decided to start counting days in the new year with a new moon, which had just as at 1 January (according to the calculations of the astronomical new moon in January '45 BC. E. The number was 1 in 18 h 16 min).
The new calendar almost every day of the year had been instructed what star or constellation has its first morning (heliacal) sunrise or sunset.For example, in November (on the current account number of the month) noted: 2nd - entry Arcturus, 7th -zahod Pleiades and Orion, etc. Thus, the calendar is closely contacted with the annual movement of the sun along the ecliptic, and therefore the cycle..agricultural work, which is timed to coincide with the beginning of the specific position of the constellations in the evening or morning sky.
Account Julian calendar was launched with the January 1, 45 BC.e.On this day, which has since 153 BC.e.They come into his office the newly elected Roman consuls, and was transferred to the beginning of the year.
In gratitude for reform, as well as taking into account the outstanding military merits of Julius Caesar (who was killed two years after the reform of the Ides of March -.. March 15, 44 BC), Roman Senate renamed Kvintilis month (this month Caesarborn) in Julius.Soon, however, the Roman priests either literacy, or with the aim of compromising the calendar again confused him, declaring a leap year every third calendar year (most likely, they used 'inclusive account "method).As a result, from 44 to 9 years.BC.e.was introduced 12 leap years instead of 9. Thus, after the first year of the new calendar-45 BC.e.(It was a leap year) leap must have been 41, 37, 33, 13, 9 years.BC.e.In fact, they were 42, 39, ..., 12 and 9 years.This error is corrected the Emperor Augustus.For 16 years, from 9 BC.e.8 AD.e.were not leap years.In other words, one and five years.BC.e.and 4 year n.e.(T. E. 749, 753 and 757 years. From "the founding of Rome") had been taken for a mere.Thus, the Julian calendar began to function normally from March 1 and 4 years.e.In this regard, the Senate, given the great military victories and in gratitude for the correction of the calendar, renamed the month Sekstilis month Augustus.But the duration of this month was established by Julius Caesar in 30 days.Now we add to it another day, subtracting it from Februariusa.And to three months - Julius, Augustus and September - we had a row of 31 days, from the Septembera one day was moved to Oktober and november of - one day Detsember (Table.).
Thus was broken Caesar entered the correct sequence of long and short months, and the first half of the year turned out to be four days shorter than the second year in a plain.Note that some of the emperors after Augustus sought to immortalize his name in the calendar.So, during the reign of Tiberius (... 14- 37 years AD) Senate renamed the month of September in Tiberius, when Antonia stump (138-161.) - The same month - to Antonius, while Aurelius Commodus (176- 192)-to Commodus.Oktober during the time of Domitian (81-96.) Was named Domitsianus.But these attempts have been rejected by the rulers of the time ...
Roman system of dating days of the month on nonam Kalenda and remained in Western Europe until the XVI century.