Calendar and the Church
In 324 the Roman emperor Constantine (c. 285-337 gg.) Proclaimed Christianity the state religion.A year later, in 325, he convened in Nicaea (now in Turkey, the Izvik) church council, which was subjected to discussion and the question about the date of Easter celebrations.
Disputes about the date of Easter.The reasons for concern at the Council of Nicaea was a lot.After all, almost every province of the vast Roman Empire had their own ideas about when to celebrate this holiday and how to determine its date.And to the nature of these disputes has become clearer, we will focus on some of the "finer points" of the issue.Moreover, his decision was later a definite impact on both the introduction to 525 of our era era (era of the "birth of Christ"), and on the reform of the calendar in 1582
First of all, many Christians of Asia Minor andPalestine in some places celebrated Easter with the Jews in the night of 14 to 15 Nisan no matter what day of the week it happened (the Christians were called "chetyrenades
In Alexandria, the then capital of Egypt, the Passover was celebrated on Sunday, to the period from 15 to 21 Nisan.To calculate the date of the vernal full moon (14 Nisan) Alexandrians in the III.first used very inaccurate oktaeteridu, and the end of the III.switched to the 19-year lunar cycle.During the beginning of his reference was made August 29 284 BC.SEs Year 1 AD Diocletian beyond Easter - 22 March to 25 April.Syria also used metons cycle with the same alternation of simple and embolismicheskih years.However, the beginning of the cycle with respect to Alexandria, as is evident from the plate was displaced for three years (with an asterisk marked embolismicheskie years):
Alexandria cycle: 1, 2, 3, * 4, 5, 6 *, 7, 8 *9, 10,
Syrian cycle: 17 * 18, 19 *, 1, 2, 3 * 4, 5, 6 * 7,
Alexandria cycle: 11 *, 12, 13, 14 *, 15,16, 17 * 18, 19 *,
Syrian cycle: 8 *, 9, 10, 11 *, 12, 13, 14 *, 15, 16,
As a result of the mismatch between the insert in the 5th and16th years of the Syrian spring full moon cycle accounted for 19 and 18 March, while in Alexandria around them comply with 18 and 17 April.So twice every 19 years, the Christian Passover, calculated on the Syrian range (and strictly follow the wake of the Jewish!) Accounted for 4 or 5 weeks before at Alexandria.Besides these two full moons Syrian cycle, strictly speaking, can not be considered a spring ( "protopaskhitami" were named in the ensuing debate on this issue the Syrians).
In turn, the Roman bishops down to the V century.n.e.did not allow the celebration of Easter later than 21 April to Parrilla - "the foundation of Rome" holiday (XI the day before the calends of May = 21 April) is not accounted for "Holy Week".But most importantly - they are for Easter calculations rather crude 8-year cycle was replaced 84 years and have not switched to 19-years-ning, as did the Alexandrians.This will inevitably lead to differences in the calculation date of the full moon of spring.
In addition, many prominent representatives of the Western Church II-V centuries.(Bishop of Rome Hippolytus, Tertullian, Augustine, and others.) Have taken "on faith" information from the fake "Acts of Pilate", that "Christ suffered on March 25» (ante diem VII Kal. Apr.- eight days before the calends of April).In the Roman martyrology (memorial of martyrs list) March 25 commemorates even "wise thief", and Hippolytus calculated that "the first Christian Easter" accounted for 29 AD.e.However, Easter can only happen Alexandrian Paschalia March 27, 1, 12, 91 and 96 AD.e.This is probably why many theologians of the Eastern Church in the works claimed that Jesus Christ died on the Cross on March 23 Friday and resurrected on March 25 (in 313 and also wrote the famous western writer Lactantius, who lived a long time in the Christian East).Their desire to include "First Easter" - "Resurrection" on March 25 will become clear when we remember that at that time had already formed opinions, though in this day, March 25, was "created" the world that on the same day was the "Annunciation".That is why the Passover, having on 25 March, called kiriopaskhoy - "Easter Gospodstvennoy", thereby emphasizing this triple coincidence.Then we'll see what Dionysius the Small, introducing the chronology of our era, just took the "First Easter" on March 25.One of the Christian sects in the III-IV centuries.constantly celebrate Easter on March 25 regardless of what day it arrives.
serious cause of dispute about the date of Easter has in the texts of the Gospels.For the first three evangelists (Matthew, Mark and Luke) are almost the same words say that Christ with his disciples "ate legal Passover," which the Jews were preparing the evening of 14 Nisan.It followed that he was crucified 15, and "rose 17 Nisan."But the evangelist John definitely speaks of the "Last Supper" 13 (ie, in the night from 13 to 14..) Mr. Nisan, Christ's death on the eve of the Jewish Passover - Nisan 14 and Sunday 16 Nisan.
For almost 20 centuries, many attempts have been made to reconcile this striking contradiction in the testimonies of the evangelists, but all ended in failure.And yet today it can not be considered as evidence in the case of myth-making evangelists.In 1875, a professor of St. Petersburg Theological Academy Khvol'son drew attention to the fact that on the eve of Passover in the territory of the Temple in Jerusalem "zakalali" several thousand lambs (Josephus spoke even about 256,500 - including clearly exaggerated).The very same cooking "the passover" took two to three hours.But, as already noted, the Bible forbids Jews to cook on the Sabbath, which began in fact on Friday after sunset.If Passover falls on a Saturday (and this is precisely what happened in the year of Christ's death), it is considered by Khvol'son Easter sacrifices on Thursday night, the very same could eat the Passover on the night from Thursday to Friday, and fromFriday to Saturday.
This assumption Khvol'son has no clear confirmation, since after the destruction by Titus in 70 BC.e.Jerusalem temple sacrifices are no longer sacrificed and many of the customs are gradually forgotten.Of course, there is the Talmud, and there is a case of "Easter Saturday" provided that if Easter falls on Saturday, the first 6 1/2 hours (12 hours and 30 minutes of the day in our reckoning) zakalaetsya and 71/2 hours brought daily evening sacrifice, then slaughter the Passover sacrifice is made.It further states quite clearly that "if implemented -zaklanie Easter morning, then it is worthless."And again: "13 Nisan can not be cut, and 14 can not be cut in the morning."However, the entire Talmudic literature is largely created and edited much later - in the III-V centuries.n.e.Therefore, the hypothesis refutation Khvol'son based on it look convincing.
But in II-IV centuries.n.e.said the difference between evangelicals has led to the fact that the Christian West did not allow the celebration of Easter earlier than the 16th of Nisan, whereas in the East believed that it is possible to assign and on 15 Nisan.Because of this Easter in Rome often celebrated a week later than the rest of the churches.
Decisions on Easter.Original Nicene decrees have not been preserved.He was not in the archives of the Church of Constantinople in the beginning of V in.In an official document, there is only a message of Nicaea Emperor Constantine to the bishops who were not present at the council.The message states that the cathedral "seemed indecent to make this holy feast of the Jews ... as usual", because they "instead of the proper fixes in the same year passover twice."There had in mind the following: if the Jewish calendar, Nisan 14, had immediately after the vernal equinox and the next calendar year has 12 lunar months, then another 14 Nisan has already come before the spring equinox.This creates the illusion of the celebration of Easter "twice a year."For example, just before the Council of Nicaea in 321, the Passover fell on March 30, at 322 g.- March 20, at 323 g.- April 7.Thus, between the equinoxes (March 21!) 321 and 322 years.Easter is celebrated twice, while between 322 and 323 equinoxes gg.- once.This event is repeated until the end of V in.n.e.every 19 years.The message also reads: "The general opinion is recognized for the good - to all Christians, no matter what country they live, to make life-saving holiday in the same day."
Yet the question of when it was formulated rule Passover celebration until after the vernal equinox, is still open.
In the XIV century.about the rule of celebrating Easter Byzantine monk Matthew Blastares spoke as follows: "With regard to our passover is necessary to pay attention to four resolutions, two of which are contained in the Apostolic rule, and two are from the beginning of unwritten tradition.First - we must celebrate the Passover after the vernal equinox.The second - not to celebrate it together with the Jews in one day.Third - do not celebrate just after the equinox, but after the first full moon after the equinox to be having.And the fourth, after the full moon only as the first day of the week. "
analysis of those rules shows that only the first of them unequivocally established "church fathers."The second in the IV - VIII centuries.I understood only in the sense of "not celebrate Easter before the vernal equinox," and in other days except Sunday, as is the case of the Jews.Suffice it to recall that the Alexandria church in the coming years after the Council of Nicaea - 343, 347, 367, 370, 374, 394 years.- Celebrate Easter on the same day with the Jews.Such coincidences stopped after 783 (!), Only because it adopted for the calculation of the Christian Easter Metonic cycle is less accurate than the Jewish calendar.
Not immediately realized the wish and the second Council of Nicaea - for all Christians to make "life-saving holiday in the same day."For example, even in the V-VI vv.- 475, 495, 496, 516 years.- Easter is celebrated in Rome a week later than in the Eastern Church.In part, this was due to the divergence of cycles - 84-year-old and 19-year-old.But in 457, Bishop Victor of Aquitaine at the request of Pope Leo the Great was the Passover table as much as 532 already on the basis of 19-year cycle, and differences still remained: they were due to the fact that the Western church still did not agree to appoint Easter 15Nisan.And only in the paschal compiled by Dionysius Exiguus, Sunday 15 Nisan is already considered the Easter day.
In conclusion we note that in the III.own method of calculating the date of Easter was already firmly established.The main thing was -based 19-year cycle to make a table full moon of spring.After that, each year, sets the number of the month, which accounts for the first full moon after that Sunday.For this purpose, the 28-year solar cycle.
Thus, since in IV.n.e.Christian Church bound its annual cycle of holidays to the Julian calendar, but most important of them - the Passover (and its accompanying blog cycle and "transitional" holidays) - from lunar-solar calendar.But that is another time counting system proved to be inaccurate.Therefore, the church and has initiated subsequent calendar reform.