Several calendar eras
In his practice people can not do without the account days a week, month, year, without a specific system account.Otherwise, they might not even understand each other.Of course, you can call each year some new name.So did some ancient peoples.For example, in Athens, the year designated by the name of the supreme official - archon in Argos - the name of the priestesses of the temple of the goddess Hera in ancient Rome - the names of the two consuls are replaced annually.Year, named after the official called the eponymous year (from the Greek "eponemisis" - the declaration), and these persons in connection with this - eponyms.This method accounts years is far from perfect ...
Of course, it is better just go and numbered years.This is not significant, which is the first year we have called if he stood than ever among his predecessors or not.But it is important that the method used s account also other people.
Now you can not even list the era used by different people in the history of human culture.On th
chronology by Olympiads .In the middle of a III.BC.e.Greek historian Timaeus and mathematician Eratosthenes introduced the chronology of the first Olympic Games.These Games were held in the days close to the summer solstice, every four years, they started on the 11th and ended 16th day after the new moon.With the score of years on the Olympic Games every year are the index number of the Olympiad (0l) and the number of the year (t) in four years, which is the beginning of the Olympics.
passed on from generation to generation, lists of winners of the Olympic Games have been used about 300 g, n.e.Christian historian Eusebius of Caesarea (263-338), who in his "Chronicle", starting from the "forefather Adam," has compared the reign of kings known to him from the competition dates.The "Chronicle" shows the Olympic winners up to the 249th Olympiad, inclusive, t. E. To 220 AD.e.
in the XVIII century.Julian calendar and adopted today through years, as the saying goes, "hindsight", have been extended to those early years when the calendar is actually not yet acted.As a result, it was found that through years of the Olympiads was conducted from July, 1776 BC.e.according to the Julian calendar.
This ratio, when one of the calendars (in this case Julian) applies to those periods of time when it actually has not acted, called prolepticheskim (t. E. Is preceded).
Thus, during the transition from the chronology by Olympiads our chronology should use the formula
R = 776 - [(0l - 1) * 4 + (t - 1)] BC.e., if the event took place BC.e, and the formula
R =. [( Ol - 1) * 4 + (t- 1)] - 775 AD.e., if it took place in a certain year, n.e.Here R - BC.e.or n.e.
For example, the famous battle of the Greeks against the Persians at Thermopylae and Salamis occurred in the first year of the 75th Olympiad (denoted by 0 / 75.1).According to the formula we find
R = 776 - [74 * 4] - 0 = 776 -.. 296 = 480, ie, the said event occurred in 480 BC.e.
in 394 AD.e.Emperor Theodosius Olympic games were banned.However, the chronology by Olympiads was used for some time.
chronology by consuls. We have already mentioned the names of years of the Roman Republic by the names of the consuls.Historians have lists of consuls for 1050 years, from the founding of the republic - consuls Brutus and Kollatina, took office to 509 AD.e.
After the death of Emperor Constantine in 337, the Roman Empire actually had two capitals and, by agreement, one consul elected in Rome, another in Constantinople.In 537, Emperor Justinian introduced chronology by year reign of the emperors, who from 534 AD.e.focused consular office in their hands.Last consul Flavius Basil Little was elected in 541 AD.e.Therefore, in Rome for a while through years it was conducted as follows: 1st, 2nd, and so on year post consulatum Basilii ( «after [taking office] Consul Basil")...The successors of Emperor Justinian restored the custom declare themselves consuls January 1 and throwing (as has been done before) people money.Therefore, through years of post consulatum lasted until the IX.Only the Emperor Leo the Philosopher (886-912) issued an edict banning the use numbered years by the consuls.
should be borne in mind that since the days of the emperors instead of one pair of consuls were elected each year a few pairs - normal (ordinarii) and front (suflecti).A few months later the first term its responsibilities by transferring them to others.However, the years were designated exclusively by consuls ordinarii.
«From the founding of the city." medieval historians (until the end of the XVII century.) Is widely used era ab urbe condita- «from the founding of the city" (Rome), although most of the Roman Empire era, this has not been popular because of the controversy about the age of the city.It was assumed around 10 different dates its foundation.Marcus Terentius Varro accepted and popularized Ol 6.3 date - the third year of the 6th Olympiad.Day of their city the Romans celebrated annually on April 21 as the spring festival.According to Varro, era, t. E. The starting point of the era of ab urbe condita, is April 21 753 BC.e .;and took it in his writings, medieval historians.
Era Nabokassara. Due to the outstanding ancient Greek astronomer Claudius Ptolemy (c. 90-160 years. BC. E.) Gained fame Nabonassar era.In his work "Almagest" Ptolemy led "Canon of Kings" - a table in which the names and the reign of Babylonian-Assyrian were listed, Persian and Macedonian (Greek) kings and Roman emperors, as well as the total number of years that have passed from the reign of the Babylonian king Nabonassar.
«Canon" has the following features:
1) it uses the Egyptian year of 365 days and
2) no matter what month of the year beginning of the reign of one or another of the king, he shall be deemed started on 1 Thoth, ie.. on the first day of the year.Epoch era Nabonassar is February 26 747 BC.e.according to the Julian calendar.
The foregoing can be expressed as the ratio: 1 Thoth 1 year Nabonassar = 747 February 26 before.BC
Ptolemy himself embraced his "Canon" 907 years of Egyptian - from Nabonassar to Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (86-161 years BC...).Later in the "Canon" and included the Byzantine emperors, and the list was continued until the fall of Constantinople in 1453
Annex V given fragment synchronistic table's chronology n.e., from "the founding of Rome" and Olympiads.It is pertinent to note that the equality of 1 AD.e.= 754 and.u.from.= OL.195.1
should read as follows: in the 1st ADApril 21 began 754 th year of the "foundation of Rome", and the new moon, which occurred just before the summer solstice (June 10), the 1st century AD, thestarted 1st year the 195th Olympiad.
era of Augustus. Here are just appropriate to say and o the word "era".It is assumed that it comes from the Latin word aega, which means "number".There is also speculation that this is the first letters of the phrase ab exordio regni Augusti - «from the beginning of the reign of August", already mentioned the Roman emperor Octavian Augustus, in which the Roman state from a republic became an empire.Then it was decided to date the various official documents of the reign of Emperor year.
Incidentally, although in August became emperor in 27 BC.e., actually through years' reign of Augustus "was conducted from August 1, 43 BC.e.= 711, from "the founding of Rome", when Augustus became consul.Shortly after the Battle of Cape Shares held September 2, 31 BC.e., under the dominion of the Romans fell, and Egypt, so here's scored in the era of "the reign of Augustus in Egypt."During the era of the era made
August 1, 30 BC.SEs day when Augustus visited the city of Alexandria.By comparing this date with Annex V of the table, we find that in 30 BC.e.1 Thoth Egyptian calendar corresponds to August 31 and on August 1 had 6 Mesori.So it was in the Julian calendar with a uniform alternating visokosov three years to four.But, as already noted (p. 207), after the death of Julius Caesar, the Roman priests did insert the 366th day of every third year, and by 30 BC.e.made two extra inserts.Thus, in August, I visited Alexandria on August 1, but the Egyptian calendar it was not 6, and 8 Mesori.In the future, equality Aug. 1 = 8 Mesori or 1 = Thoth on 29 August and was made in the reform of the Egyptian kalendarya- replacing it stable Alexandrian calendar, and after correcting the Julian calendar August - as the basis for the conversion from one calendar to another date.
Historians seem, yet there is little evidence that the Alexandrian calendar is widespread.So, the writer Censorinus 238, the detail about the Egyptian calendar year with his mobile, but somehow completely silent about Alexandria.But a century later Theon of Alexandria provides comprehensive rules for the transition from the Alexandrian date to the Egyptian.
Seleucid era. the Middle East is very common was the era of the Seleucids.Seleucus was one of the generals of Alexander the Great in 312 BC.e.He became king of Syria.Power Seleucus occupied the vast territory inhabited by different peoples it, use various calendars.Therefore, the era of Seleucus was different: in Babylon through years was conducted from 22 April 311 BC.AD, in Persia -. February 7311 BC.e.Later strengthened date of October 1 312 BC.e.Chronology for the Seleucid era remained among the Christian population of Syria until the XIX century.In several other places used chronology from the year of liberation from the rule of the Seleucids ...
era of Diocletian. Finally, a long time in the Roman Empire and in Egypt was conducted chronology of coming to power of the Emperor Diocletian (circa 243-313 years BC....), The era of the era - 29 August 284 BC.e., when in fact Diocletian came to power on 17 September.Here, the example of Ptolemy, the coming to power of Diocletian attributed to the Beginning of the Egyptian year - 1 of Thoth.However (and this is very important!) Now we are talking about the beginning of the "stability" of the Egyptian year, which is after the calendar reform in 26 BC.e."Stop" on the date of 29 (in the year preceding the leap - 30) in August on the Julian calendar."Floating" the Egyptian year (namely, it was used until the astronomers Copernicus) began in 284 AD.e.on 13 June.(Calendar lovers will probably be interested to know that after 140 AD 1 Toth this floating year coincided with the July 19, 1600, and in 1984 -... 1987 1 Toth falls on April 14 Articles).
Emperor Diocletian ruled the empire for 21 years and have one, he was quite different from many of its predecessors, which are often followed each other.In addition, it was a strong-willed person, a seasoned commander and an outstanding administrator.Chronology by Diocletian era and survived after the emperor abdicated.It is widely used in the preparation of astrology horoscopes and Alexandrian bishops in the calculation of the Christian Easter dates.However, later Christians came to the conclusion that it is not good at this years run to mention the name of Diocletian (which Christians persecuted) and renamed the era of "the era of martyrs clean".The latter is still used by the Coptic Christians in Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan.
In Assyria Lymm.Curious 's expense (and days per year) in the eponym existed in ancient Assyria (in Kültepe).Here, at the beginning of II millennium BC.e.years were designated by name kaznacheev- Lymm (literally "thousand").As suggested NB Yankovskaya (USSR), in the beginning there was a panel of three persons: the names of the first two years, called the N and N + 1 Year N + 2 is first called by the name of the third eponym, and at the end of the 1000 th day from the beginning, N the same year was designated as the year of "in the hand" of the third eponym or two names - the name of a third of the original trio and the first of the new troika Lymm.In the era of the Assyrian kingdom, from the XIV century.BC.e., eponyms Lymm already replaced a strictly annual basis.It is noteworthy that for the period 911 648 BC.e.until we reached a solid list of Lymm ...
Then, in the beginning of II millennium BC.E., In Kültepe track of time and led the eponym hamushtu, which means "one-fifth" in all probability - one-fifth of the month, that is six days...Their names were designated certain days of the year - original six-day "weeks", which in the year, there were about fifty.College "weekly" eponyms, apparently consisted of six people.As a result, the date "hamushtu such a" matched certain day six days.Further, if in the first six days, "so and so" was the first eponym, in the second he becomes the second, etc. After six of these "weeks" days were called already for two eponyms -.. One of the first board, and of the new.
Lymm As in the system and the system hamushtu occur not only double, triple and eponimaty.But in the era of the kingdom of Assyria (XIV-VII centuries. BC. E.) Eponymous hamushtu not occur.
Without dwelling on the calendar eras, which at various times have been used in China, Japan and India, as we concluded that only existed in India for more than 20 eras.One of them - the Buddhist, according to which the expense is being years from the death of the Buddha - the founder of the Buddhist religion.But since the Buddha's personality is mythical, the date of his death were specified in different ways: from 2422 BC.e.to 543 BC.e.