Fever in children
Increased temperature - a common occurrence in children, and it is the most frequent reason for seeking parents to the doctor.But the fever itself does not have the disease.Rather, it is a sign that can help parents and doctors indicate a more serious illness.
At higher temperatures the child may be hot to the touch, the body can be congested (red), sweaty or cool.Typically, heart rate and breathing become more frequent.The child may be excited or unusually calm.Any temperature above 37 ° C is considered to be elevated.
Some of the symptoms associated with some condition with fever include cough, sore throat, weakness, pain in the ears, convulsions (seizures), vomiting, stomach pain, diarrhea, stiff neck, burning sensation when urinating, or a skin rash.This can signal the presence of viral, bacterial infection or other diseases.
At higher temperatures the external appearance of the child, his behavior and other symptoms is extremely important.That is, how high the temperature is not always an indic
temperature (fever) - is, in medical terms, means of increasing non-specific resistance of the organism, ie,factor contributing to the recovery.Back in the 1860-1870 biennium.doctors noticed that the passion antipyretic drugs leads to a deterioration of the disease.The last studies have shown that influenza virus reproduces well at 35 ° C, at 38 bad With and not propagated at 40 ° C.According to some foreign authors, the high temperature mechanism of action is not limited to the suppression of the virus or bacteria.
increase in temperature at the same time stimulates the immune system is another important factor - the production of specific proteins that block the multiplication of viruses.At the same time, we know that the most toxic forms of acute infections, which usually result in death, often occur without a fever.Temperature reaction - one of the types of protective-adaptive reactions of the organism, formed in the course of evolution in response to infection.And if it does not rise to an alarming, antipyretics patient flu or acute respiratory disease should not be accepted.(Of course, as with any rule, there are exceptions. That's why treatment should be administered under the supervision of a physician.)
excessive reaction to an influenza virus or other infectious agent may be dangerous to the person, when the temperature crosses the border forty degrees.This is especially true of older people, patients suffering from coronary heart disease and hypertension, as well as diseases of bronchopulmonary apparatus.In these cases, of course, requires reception antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agents.
Children fever can be caused by so many factors.This hot weather, hot drinks and food, too much clothing, physical activity, too much crying, infection or any other disease.If you think that the fever did not appear because of illness, check the temperature in half an hour.
study of more than one thousand cases of elevated temperature in one of the emergency services of the big city showed the following relationship between rising temperatures and disease in children:
• 50% had viral or bacterial diseases;
• 30% - an inflammation of the middle ear (otitis media);
• 12%) had pneumonia;
• 4% - infection of the blood or the presence of bacteria in the blood vessels;
• 1% - an infection of the urethra;
• less than 1% were found bacterial meningitis, a reaction to the vaccine against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus, as well as some other state.
For the correct determination of the child's temperature is not enough to put a hand on his forehead or touch his forehead with his lips.It is necessary to accurately measure the temperature with a thermometer.
Thermometers for measuring body temperature
thermometers are commercially available in two forms: a simple glass mercury or digital.
best thermometers - mercury.Thermometers long slender bulb - to measure the temperature in the mouth.Thermometers with a short, thick, round bulb - for anal measurement.Any of these types of thermometers can be used under the arm.Electronic digital thermometers are good, but they are expensive.Thermometers with a calming effect, as well as disposable point-oral thermometers are unreliable.
Normal readings by placing the thermometer into the anus - from 37 ° C to 38 ° C
• Normal temperature in the measurement of its mouth - from 36 ° C to 37.4 ° C Mean temperature measurements in the mouth 37° C, and by measuring the anus 37.5 ° C. usually the temperature at the child throughout the day varies between 36.1 ° C and 37.7 ° C Maximum temperature at the child usually obtained between 18 and 22 hours.
temperature, which remains at 0.8 ° C above normal for a few hours, almost certainly increased.This may mean that your child's immune system is actively working on in order to protect the body against any enemy, probably from a viral infection, bacterial or fungal diseases, allergies or a change caused by trauma or other disease.
Approximately 4% of the children, usually before the age of six, on the background of increased temperature can appear seizures or convulsions.They last five minutes or less.Moreover, the temperature rises very quickly to a high level.Most of the seizures are completely harmless, although without the anxiety to look at them seriously.The most important thing - it must be ensured that the child choked on vomit;it must be put to one side and to ensure that the mouth free of vomit.Convulsions should be completed within five minutes, but the reliability is better to call a doctor immediately.
temperature should begin to reduce the fever-reducing drugs, but it is necessary to consult a doctor when choosing a drug.Aspirin is generally not indicated because of the fact that it can cause sudden, but a dangerous condition known as Reye's syndrome.It is a disease that affects the brain and other vital organs, usually affects children with chickenpox and influenza.
If you give your child medicine, especially related to the dose corresponding to a certain age, be sure to follow the instructions on the label.
Talk to your doctor, he may offer to change the dosage for your child.
If the temperature remains above 39 ° C after taking the medicine, call your doctor, even if the call is repeated.
Since the temperature of the liquid burns the body, most importantly, that the child receives enough drink to avoid dehydration.This is especially important if you have diarrhea or vomiting.Let the child drink as much liquid as possible.Best suited fruit juices, fruit drinks, lemon water.
If the child starts to sweat or complains of fever, remove some curtains or clothing.Do not wrap the baby in wet clothes, because the temperature of the body will be reduced when exposed skin (this allows the sweat to evaporate).If a child asks, you can lower the temperature in the room, carefully Fanned it.
If the child persists the feeling of hunger, it should be regularly fed.But you should focus on foods such as soup and fruit that give more fluids.
may vary depending on your child's age.The following are examples of actions that can make a doctor when the temperature rises in children of different ages.If the child
one year or more parents can cope with temperatures up to 38,5 ° C which is held for eight hours or less.
child's temperature is kept above 38.5 ° C for longer days, but no other complaints;
child temperature 38,5 ° C or less within 72 hours, but then it rises above or alternately raised and lowered for three or more days;
child older than two years and his behavior is different from the norm.
temperature reaches 40 ° C or higher for a child of any age;
the baby to six months the temperature reaches 38.5 ° C or higher;
present symptoms such as coughing deep, when previously they were associated with conditions such as pneumonia;
observed convulsions with fever;
temperature of a child above 38.5 ° C, and the doctor previously diagnosed specific heart diseases, lung, kidney, nervous system or blood.
child under the age of three months and less
Elevated temperature at any level considered dangerous at this age, and requires immediate study to assess the state.When you visit the doctor can be a speech on the following measures:
• A thorough history and physical examination;
• blood tests, including analysis of evidence for the presence of infection, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein test (for infections), bacteriological analysis of blood;
• spinal puncture (spinal fluid analysis), a test for meningitis (infection of the membrane of the brain or spinal cord);
• urine analysis, including bacteriological, obtained using a catheter or sample the contents of the bladder;
• chest X-ray;
• very close medical supervision during the first three days.
child from three months to six months
Most doctors want to examine the child's circumstances following discussions with the progress of the disease parents.When you visit the following measures can be taken to the doctor:
• A thorough history and physical examination;
• complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and bacteriological analysis of blood;
• spinal puncture;
• chest X-ray;
• urine analysis, including bacteriological;
• hospitalization, depending on the child's condition and laboratory results.
• medical history and physical examination;:
child from six months to two years
following measures may be adopted with a visit to the doctor
• possibly a complete blood count, including bacteriological analysis.
child older than two years
high temperature problems in children of this age can be discussed on the phone with the doctor.However, it may require a special physical examination and treatment if a serious illness.