Some features of the Human Genome Organization

August 12, 2017 17:51 | Genetic Diseases

only 1.1 - 1.4% of the sequenced genome comprise sequences encoding the proteins.

One of the most important parts of the program "Human Genome" is the discovery of genes in the sequenced genome sequences.The position of many genes is determined by correlating of sequences of mRNA to genomic sequencing, gene localization for other sets with the help of special computer programs.

search sequencing genes are also using a special, so-called orthological approach detecting nucleotide sequences similar to the sequences of the genes in other species.This is done using the BLAST computer program, or by the genomic sequencing mRNA.Another way to find genes - is to identify paralogs (family members, resulting from gene duplication).Also used other techniques to find genes sequenced DNA.

Community Project "Human Genome" gives an estimate of protein-coding genes in 31,000, now revealed by the results of sequencing at least 20,000 genes.Among them, 740 genes were identified to RNA that does not encode proteins, bu

t probably would be of such genes found significantly larger.In yeast, the genes coding for 6000, in Drosophila - 13 000 plants - 26 000. Therefore, the question, due to what is provided by the complexity of the human organization in comparison with other, more simply organized organisms, remains open.Density

genes in the human genome is much lower than in other species.Unfortunately, the methods of computer prediction based on the results of gene sequencing is still very inaccurate.

only 94 of 1278 protein families in the human genome are peculiar only to vertebrates.The main differences between human and yeast or fly is the complexity of the organization of human proteins, which manifests itself in the large number of protein domains as well as the new domain combinations.A quantity of human genes derived apparently directly from bacteria in the so-called horizontal gene transfer.Obviously, bacterial gene could serve as a direct donor of genes for vertebrates.In vertebrates

improvement observed and the appearance of two kinds of genes specific to vertebrates, such as neuronal genes clotting genes and genes of acquired immune response, on the one hand, and genes that provide higher accuracy control of intracellular processes (genes for intra- and intercellularsignals, programmed cell death and the control of gene transcription), - on the other.

results of sequencing the human genome have stimulated the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which is intended to be used for mapping of susceptibility genes for common multifactorial diseases.

Finding genes of hereditary diseases was greatly facilitated by using rough sikvelsa as it is available to all researchers through the Internet.Possible identification of candidate genes by their position in the genome using the software directly on the database sequencing followed by screening for mutations, combined with information about the structure of the gene.Thus, we found more than 30 genes of hereditary diseases.

assumed that sequencing will be completed in a relatively short period of time.Particular attention will be paid not only to the creation of more sophisticated computer programs to identify genes and their regulatory regions.Apparently, the success of the last two lines of research will depend on the success of the sequencing of other genomes of higher animals.Based on the sequencing of the human genome will create a catalog of genetic variation in humans.