The only ( common) ventricle
When a single ventricle, both valves from the atria (or the total valve) opens into a single cavity, which runs aorta and pulmonary artery.There are various names blemish:. A single ventricle, three-chambered heart, and others only ventricular rate is 1-3% of all congenital heart defects.In newborns it has a frequency of 1: 6500 children.More often defect in boys, and the sex ratio is 2: 1-4: 1. The first description of the defect relates to the 1814
When this heart defects often (in 40% of cases) occurs in an abnormal location of the internal organs in combination with abnormalthe position of the heart (the location of the right, left or in the middle of the chest cavity) and the absence of the spleen.
When a single ventricle of the whole systemic arterial and venous blood is collected in a common cell, where it is mixed.The volume of blood ejected into the aorta and pulmonary artery, and will be determined by the resistance value of both blockage of the vessel.Without concomitant narrowing of the pu
single ventricle usually diagnosed shortly after birth, and in 2/3 of children during the first 6 months of life.In the absence of a stenosis of the pulmonary artery shortly after birth appear repetitive pneumonia, retarded physical development, dyspnea, wheezing congestion in the lungs, heart palpitations, increased liver size.Cyanosis of the skin in such cases is weak (the skin has a blue tint), located on the lips and fingertips.In doubtful cases a determination of blood oxygen saturation.All manifestations of this defect occurring often resemble ventricular septal defect with a large left to right shunt (t. E. In the pulmonary circulation).Auscultation auscultated characteristic noise.
When combined single ventricle with stenosis (narrowing) of the pulmonary artery has blueness of the skin, the expression of which is directly proportional to the intensity of the restriction lumen.A bluish coloration of the skin is significantly enhanced by the cry of a child.Over time, it is developing in "hour glass" type nail deformation and fingers in an "drumsticks."Heart failure is usually absent.When the feeling of the heart is determined by the shake.heart borders in most cases remain normal.When listening to the heart doctor determines the characteristic coarse noise.
additional child survey methods are an electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, ultrasound of the heart.The invaluable help to identify the defect has cardiac ultrasound after injection of contrast medium.
Most of the children with single ventricle die in the first months of life.For more favorable in combination with a stenosis (narrowing) of the pulmonary artery.In the first months of life at an elevated pressure in the pulmonary artery is possible to conduct surgical treatment in which special produce artificial narrowing of the pulmonary artery lumen, which decreases blood flow through the lungs and hinders the development of congestive heart failure, preventing sclerotic changes in the pulmonary vessels.Related stenosis (narrowing) of the pulmonary artery, expressed bluish coloration of the skin, retarded physical development also require surgery.Radical surgery became possible only recently.This septum prosthetic using special synthetic fabrics.