Gender role differentiation in the relations between spouses in different stages of family life cycle

Many practical problems in the field of family relations psychologically can be considered as different aspects of marriage satisfaction.Despite the abundance of work in this area, the question of the determinants of satisfaction with marriage studied enough.

main content of our work - to study the possibility and the necessity of introducing the study of satisfaction with marriage, a new type of variable - a complex indicator, called "gender role differentiation in the relationship of the spouses."Under the gender role differentiation, we understand the degree of rigidity (or specialization) in the distribution of family roles.(This term is sometimes used in studies in psychology i whirligig, but in another sense -. To refer to the development of male and female characteristics)

gender role differentiation can take many forms, but is now often serves as a "traditionalization" t.e. the "return" to the less equal (traditional) distribution of roles in the family.

As you know, the family in its develop

ment goes through different stages, some of which require significant rearrangements of marital relations in accordance with the new challenges facing the family.Let's call this stage "crisis" - these include, for example, the periods after birth, the beginning of a child's learning at school.

review of the literature suggests that sex-role differentiation at different stages of development of the family is a natural character - in "crisis" periods of roles is more traditional (when most of the housework performs wife).In addition, we have assumed that the appropriate changes have different effects on the marital satisfaction of men and women, and it depends on the stage of development of the family.

The study was conducted using a questionnaire-type techniques, allowing to identify: 1) the installation of the spouses on the distribution of roles, 2) the real distribution of roles in the family, 3) the satisfaction in marriage as husband and wife.For every family with a special algorithm was calculated "gender role differentiation index."Its value is determined by the degree of the traditional relations of the spouses, which was estimated to 14 parameters.You could say that was built "model" of the traditional family and its parameters are highlighted (the distribution of roles in the upbringing of children, financial support, etc.).

were interviewed four groups, each with 20 to 30 families (103 families): 1) childless young families;2) families with children under the age of 1 year;3) family with a child 4-5 years of age;4) family with a child 7-9 years.

The data generally confirm the assumptions made by us, that the "crisis" periods in the development of the family are the 2nd and 4th groups.The degree of traditionalism in the 2 nd and 4 th groups in the distribution of roles in the family above, and in the 1st and 3rd groups, relations between spouses are more egalitarian.In the 2nd and 4th groups the value of marriage between a man satisfaction is directly proportional to the value of gender role differentiation, and in women this relationship is negative.The 1st and 3rd groups of communication satisfaction and gender role differentiation is less pronounced, and there is a tendency to change the direction of communication: communication in men tends to be negative, and women - to the positive.

results of the study suggest a qualitative originality of laws operating at different stages of development of the family, and consider sex-role differentiation as the most important "mechanism" occurring in the family changes.Apparently polorolevogo acts as a differentiation method of overcoming "crisis" period of the family, and its effectiveness after the passage of such periods dramatically decreases.The "crisis" periods tougher roles contributes to more efficient functioning of the family as a whole.

obtained evidence of the need for a flexible reallocation of roles in the family, in accordance with the stages of its development and showing specific forms of these changes can be used to prepare young people for marriage and the practice of consulting work.