Gender role differentiation as a comprehensive indicator of relations of spouses

In recent decades, family studies are well positioned in the sciences of man and society - sociology, philosophy, demography, psychology.Careful scientific analysis were subjected to a variety of issues: the distribution of marital roles in the family, especially the perception of spouses to each other, the relationship of children and parents, etc. But undoubtedly the most popular and discussed topic here is to find the factors that affect the spouses' satisfaction with their marriage...Numerous data obtained in the study of the topic, provided the basis for the creation of American authors R. Lewis and Gy.Spanierom kind of perfect quality descriptive model of marriage that allows illuminate the relationship with marital satisfaction almost any characteristic of the spouses, their relationships and socio-economic characteristics of family life.In our view, there are a number of circumstances that cast doubt on the approach of these authors to the study of the family.

Firstly, not all the family charact

eristics have the same effect on different family.So, there are parameters which change is reflected in the satisfaction in marriage is very clear (eg, communication difficulties affecting always negatively impact the other depends on the type of family, attitudes and interpersonal relations of spouses (for example, according to US data, women professional activities impact on the quality of marriage depends onthat works whether it is because she likes it, or due to the fact that the family needs money, to what social class belongs to this couple, it refers to the professional activities of his wife's husband.

Second, the family is not the same, frozen form, during the existence of it is a regular and frequent global changes, covering almost all aspects of her life -. the characteristics of the relationship of the spouses to the nature of the products consumed by the family members of these changes relate primarily to the realization of family functions of birth and parenting research., repetition, devoted to the problem of family cycle, led to the conclusion that the feedback for a family of many factors depends on what stage of the cycle it is at the moment.At this point the connection scheme described in R. Lewis and Gy.Spaniera and bearing absolute, irrespective of the nature of time, should be reviewed.

Third, the majority of family characteristics associated with each other.It is hard to imagine that some family event (eg, the output of his wife to work after a long break caused by the birth of a child) did not entail a host of others that will be perceived by spouses both positively and negatively (increase the amount of money in the family, a reductiontime devoted to the woman home and children; increase the need for assistance to her husband on the farm, etc.)...

Finally, the family is a minimum of two people - a husband and wife.Driving R. Lewis and Gy.Spaniera as it implies that a change in any parameter the same effect on marital satisfaction of both.But this is not always the case.The question of how to characterize the family as a whole counted separately indicators husband and wife (especially in a situation where they are significantly different from each other), is a long time and is unresponsive.Many authors see a way out of this situation in the creation of special indexes, which would take into account data from both spouses.But how to create such indexes that they include and what mathematical procedure to use when counting?

view of the fact that a single, independent from the others and quite "influential" factor that has the same impact on the family at different stages of the cycle (or changing along with it), is not found, we believe the most effective way to create complex indicators, including groups linkedeach other variables.

Many authors have expressed concerns about the large value and at the same time a close connection with each other parameters characterizing the distribution and sale of the marital roles in the family.The fact that they are associated with sex spouses, t. E. With the biological foundations of the family, emphasizing their importance and basic nature, can be considered as determinant of many intra-processes.A comprehensive index, taking into account both the actual distribution of roles in the family, and the attitude of the spouses received in the literature as sex-role differentiation.Polo-role differentiation (DWP) is broadly defined on the basis of the following characteristics: 1) submission of the spouses about the roles of men and women (sex role installation);2) submission of the spouses on the distribution of roles in the family (private sex-role installations);3) role behavior of spouses (the actual distribution of roles);4) gender identity (masculinity-femininity spouses).The range forms the DWP is wide enough, but the main ones are: the traditional, anti-traditional and equitable, each of which is characteristic for the respective type of family.Traditional DWP inherent in families where the duties of the spouses are distributed strictly in relation to their sex (for women - looking after the house and bringing up children, for men - material support of the family and maintaining contacts with the outside world), and each of them believes this situation normal, and the only possible.Anti-traditional DWP is quite rare and is characterized mainly for Swedish families, and Finland, where leave to care for a child can take not only the mother but also a father.Equitable form reflects a situation where both spouses are equally included in the implementation of family roles and responsibilities, and where each of them is responsible mainly for the fact that is more consistent with his tastes and abilities.

Unfortunately, studies where the DWP would be taken into account as a complex variable, quite a bit.But there is a lot of data that characterize the changes in its components.Some of them we would like here briefly.First of all, it is the results of surveys of the spouses, attesting to the nature of changes in the distribution of roles in the family in the family cycle.Thus, it was found that the perceived roles equality increased in later stages of the family cycle.At the same time increases and the spouses' satisfaction with their marriage.

One of the reasons for the changes observed in the family cycle (and at the same time, the factor that has a huge impact on them) - is the presence of children and their age.Numerous data indicate that the appearance of the child (especially the first-born), leads to a sharp traditionalization relations of spouses.Naturally, this is mainly due to changes in the position of women, who are often at the same time expressed dissatisfaction with the prevailing situation in the family.Of great interest to us are the results of studies showing that the age of the child in different ways affects the distribution of marital roles.So, according to some estimates, more rigid traditions-nationalization relations of spouses coincides with the time your child enters school and the achievement of their adolescent age iogo.

Interestingly, the education of children determines not only I).definition of the roles in the family, but also the underlying personal characteristics such as gender identity.The research results indicate that the maximum psychological sex differences, the couple observed during the mature stage of the parent (age is not more than 15-16 years old).

The above and many other data suggest that in life there are alternate periods of strength and weakness of the DWP.And gain characteristic for the periods of family life, when it is undergoing serious changes:.. The appearance of the child, the beginning of his schooling, etc. These are periods when family life inevitably has to be reconstructed in order to meet the new requirements.Let's call them the adjustment period and shall be distinguished from the others, which are conditionally call stable.The growth of the DWP in periods of restructuring is not difficult to explain: the most adequate way of functioning of any community in a situation of tightening and strengthening of requirements - the transition from freedom to a rigid structure.

By increasing the DWP responsibilities of each of the spouses narrows, allowing them to be more included in the implementation of the tasks that are directly in front of them.This differentiation allows a pair of generally more successfully to solve problems, cope with a large number of problems and, therefore, should be seen as a "bargain" at certain stages of the family cycle and enhance the satisfaction in marriage;preservation of rigid differentiation, when the need for it has disappeared (the family is fully adapted to the situation or problem it has decreased), on the contrary, should lead to lower marriage satisfaction.

In order to test our assumption conducted a study in which the following have been put forward as a hypothesis.

1. The value of Tx changes in the family cycle, moreover, in times when the family is a reorganization (the birth of the child, the beginning of school, and so on. D.), It is more than in periods when such changes occur (educationpreschool child, and so on. d.).

2. Rigid DWP has different effects on the spouses' satisfaction with their marriage at different stages of the family cycle in cases where it contributes to better address their family problems, it is a positive influence;otherwise negative.

Table 1

Note.Groups II and IV-couples undergoing a period of restructuring;Groups I and II - a stable period relationships.

Technique.The study was conducted in the form of a written survey respondents (103 married couples, distribution, singing in groups, see Table 1..), In which the use of the following methods: setting a test questionnaires on the distribution of roles in the family and especially the daily interaction of spouses, satisfaction testmarriage.All methods are created at the Department of Social Psychology Faculty of the Moscow State University of Psychology.

All we used techniques have been conditionally allocated blocks Potro: "Setup", "roles" and "marriage satisfaction."This selection is determined by previous studies, as well as the very concept of the TX, where the main emphasis is on the role behavior of spouses and attitude.(Due to the limited capacity of one study masculinity-femininity we have not considered.)

unit "setup" included 7 scales, allowing to identify the respondent's position on the following issues: 1) preferred orientation in the sense of duty, or to achieve pleasure;2) a positive or neutral attitude to children;3) related to family ties as a value, or vice versa;4) focus primarily on the joint (or separate) the activities of spouses in various areas (vacation, friends, etc.)..;5) a positive or negative attitude to love romantic type;6) focus on the traditional or non-traditional representation of a woman;7) presentation of the material assets of the importance of human life.On the same block have been included scales that detect the installation of the respondent on the distribution of roles in the family in the following areas: 1) education of young children;2) emotional climate;3) material support the family;4) organization of entertainment;5) inclusion in the home care;6) a sexual relationship;7) family subculture.

block "role" included a scale, revealing the real distribution of roles in the family v.ukazannyh seven areas (the second part of the "Settings" block).On the same block have been included scales designed to identify the following characteristics of family interaction: 1) Activity defend their views;2) assessment of the activity of the other spouse in defending their views;3) the level of family conflict;4) constructive marital quarrels;5) especially reconciliation after a conflict (to whom is attributed the blame for the conflict);6) The level of communication between the spouses;7) tolerance of marital autonomy;8) Evaluation of tolerance to the other spouse's autonomy.

To measure the "marital satisfaction" test was used on marriage satisfaction.

On the basis of processing the responses of the subjects calculated the index of the DWP, describing a couple of the whole in terms of the degree of traditional marriage.. To create this index by us based schemes Matskovskogo, Kirk-natrika and Rainwater, as well as on the basis of a survey of experts (ii mo allocated 14 parameters that distinguish the traditional family from the egalitarian and thus characterizing the degree of family tradition: focus on debt rather than onfun (1), applicable to children as the main family values ​​(2) understanding of the need for joint action in any situation (3), the traditional view of the role of women at work and at home (4), the notion that the education function of children (5) and the maintenance of emotional climate in the family (6) are predominantly women, and material support of the family (7) - a male, the ability only for her husband to defend their views (8), and for a wife - to submit in a situation at odds with them (9);wife to the husband's tolerance of autonomy (10) and husband to wife intolerance autonomy (11); the traditional division of roles in the areas of: education of children (12), the emotional climate (13), material support (14).Options (1) - (7) is characterized by the installation of the spouses, (8) - (14) - reflect the real behavior.

For each of the 14 parameters of each spouse could get a 1 or 0 points in whichever indicates th (her) response "for" or "against" the traditional position on the Nome parameter;scores of both spouses were summed, and the result overall DWP index for each family, theoretically ranging from 0 to 28.

Besides the overall index were calculated as 4 Private: 1) only the responses of her husband;2) Only the responses of his wife;3) the responses of both spouses on the scale unit "installation";4) the responses of both spouses on the block scale 'actual behavior. "

results.The value of the overall index DWP in surveyed households ranged from 12 to 19, ie, is the mean value, which is a natural for our sample:.. For urban families with relatively little experience of marriage, where the vast majority of the spouses has a higher education, the most typical egalitarian stylerelationship.The mean values ​​of the overall index for the following groups:

I group-14.6;Group II -15.96;Group III-16.33;Group IV - 16.26.(Note that in Group I of the index value is determined from the 13 parameters, because these families, no children, and the scale "distribution of roles in the upbringing of children" is not used. The value of the overall index in group I was significantly different from those in groups II, III, (PJ0.05), and the difference of indices in groups II, III and IV with each other is not significant.

These data indicate that the TX families without a child is much weaker than in families with a child (regardless of age).in fact, this result is only partial confirmation of our first hypothesis: the value of the DWP does change in the course of development of the family cycle, but these changes are not associated with transient or stable periods, and the presence or absence of the child in the family

Consider now the relationship values ​​of the DWP.satisfaction with marriage, men and women. this relationship should be determined by the stage of development of the family, on which the couple. to test this hypothesis we consider the relationship of satisfaction marriage with DWP value first in those groups where the couple are in a situation of relationship adjustment (II and IV),and then in groups, where the couple are relatively stable relations (1 and 111).For more information, examine the relationship satisfaction of marriage with all five indices (the "common" and 4 "private").

1. Consider the results of the families that are in a period of adjustment.Data Table.2 show that men groups

II and IV (children up to 1 year), marital satisfaction is positively correlated with the degree of relationship traditionalization almost all (except one) indices DWP.This relationship does not reach the level of significance, though in group II and approaching it.The only exception - a slight negative relationship with the largest index "from the responses wife» (IV).

Note.p & lt;0.05;p & lt;0.025;p & lt;0.01; ++++ p & lt;0.05.

These women have a different look.If the Group IV connection with the degree of satisfaction with marriage traditionalization in all indices is positive (albeit not significant), in Group II it is positive (and insignificant) associated only with the index "from the responses of her husband."For other indices communication negative and insignificant.