Role of mastering problems of men and women
Value gender categories for understanding the psychological characteristics of the individual and the specifics of his life proved by numerous experimental and theoretical studies.However, gender issues so poorly represented in Soviet psychology that this was the basis for I. Cohn called it "sexless".Only in recent years, the situation began to change: it was published a number of reviews and empirical work on the problem of gender socialization.One step in this direction is a research project of the USSR Academy of Sciences of the former "Socio-psychological problems of socialization and learning of gender roles", dedicated to the analysis of characteristics of the position of men and women in the former USSR, the factors of success of gender role socialization and functioning.This article is a summary of the theoretical concept of the study.
results of work carried out over the past 15 years, give more evidence in favor of the socio-cultural determination of sex differences.If, until recently, was con
At the same time, faced with the differences between the sexes in everyday life we are constantly in one form or another, which largely reflect some implicit agreement about the possibility to exercise certain quality.In the most general form they are presented stereotypes of masculinity and femininity.The man - a strong, independent, active, aggressive, rational, focused on individual achievement, tool;woman - a weak, dependent, passive, soft, emotional, focused on the other, expressive, etc. Existing social polorolёvye stereotypes have a strong influence on the process of socialization of children, largely determining its direction...On the basis of their perceptions of the qualities specific to men and women, parents (and other caregivers) are often themselves unaware of this, they encourage children to exercise these, polospetsificheskie features.
Interestingly, this behavior is not a reaction to the real differences between children.This is demonstrated in particular with sham experiments floor child.For example, regardless of actual gender, in that case, if the baby were observers as a boy, his behavior was described as more active, fearless and cheerful than when he was considered a girl.At the same negative emotions the "boy" is perceived as a manifestation of anger, and the "girls" - fear.Thus, the social world from the beginning turned to the boy and girl by different parties.
consider in detail the specifics of socialization situation for each sex.No matter how described the process of mastering the sexual roles in a variety of psychological orientation-s, doubtless is the impact that has on a child people serving him polospetsifiches model-one behavior and source of information about sex roles.In this sense, the boy is in a much less favorable situation than the girl.So, the mother traditionally holds a small child much longer.Father a child sees a little bit less, not in such important situations, so it is usually in the eyes of baby it is a less attractive target.In this regard, both for girls and for boys in almost every primary identification is with the mother culture, t. E. Femina.Moreover, the very basic orientation of the child in relation to the world is by nature feminine, for include traditionally female characteristics as a dependency, a subordinate position, passivity, and so on. N.
Thus, in terms of the formation of gender identity to the boy to solve more difficultproblem: change the initial identification of the female to the male patterned significant adult male and cultural standards of masculinity.However, this task is complicated by the fact that almost everyone with whom the child close encounters, especially in the modern Russian society (kindergarten teachers, doctors, teachers), - women.Not surprisingly, with the result that the boys are much less aware of the behavior of the corresponding male sexual role than women's.
At the same time the prevalence of traditional ideas about the hierarchical relationship of sex roles leads to the fact that compared with girls, boys suffer more pressure from society towards the formation of sex-specific behavior.This early attention is being paid more emphasized the value of the respective gender roles and the risk of evasion from it, and do male stereotypes are much more narrow and dogmatic.
In combination with the lack of role models such pressure leads to the fact that the boy was forced to build their gender identity primarily on the basis of a negative: not to be like the girls who do not participate in the women's activities, etc. .. At the same time in our country the child.It has relatively little room for proper masculine manifestations (eg, aggression, independence, motor activity, and so on. p.), as well as adults treat them fairly ambivalent as to the source of anxiety.(Evidence of the prevalence of this attitude is a psychotherapeutic practice in which hyperactivity and aggressiveness, regardless of the child's sex are significantly more common reason for the appeal of parents for help than lethargy and confusion.) Therefore, the stimulation from adults is also largely negative: not promoting "male"manifestations, and punishment for "unmanly".As an example, a typical parent saying "not ashamed to cry, you're a boy," and how men respond to insult or not available, or impaired ( "you can not fight").Thus, the child is required to do something that is not clear enough for him, and for reasons he does not understand, through threats and anger of those who are close to him.This situation leads to a buildup of anxiety that often manifests itself in excessive efforts to be masculine and panic fear to do something feminine.As a result of man's identity is formed primarily as a result of identification with a status position, or social myth "how to be a man."Not surprisingly, this created on the basis of identity is diffuse, easily vulnerable and at the same time is very rigid.
especially the stronger social pressure on the boy with the transition into the public system of education-preschool or school, since, on the one hand, teachers and educators differ significantly higher traditionalism, and on the other - the parents themselves, preparing the child for a meeting with the new forhis social situation assessment, increase the rigidity of their regulatory standards.
All this leads to the fact that the moment comes in the socialization of the boy when he needs to "distance itself" from the "Women's World", its values and create your own, man.The transition to this stage usually begins in 8-12 years when there are children's first company formed close interpersonal relationships with peers, to which the boy can now rely on a source of male role models, and the scope of implementation of the masculine qualities.This process, called masculine protest, characterized by bright negativism against girls and the formation of a special "male", stressed the rough and sharp style of communication.
Such an exaggerated idea of masculinity, focused on the most striking features of brutal male image, more softened and become more egalitarian only in the future.According to Western reports, this is the beginning of adolescence, when the boy was unable to defend its identity from the female world pressure.However, the characteristic of our country's shortage of opportunities for the development and manifestation of masculinity suggests that we have this process is even more difficult and dramatic and ends much later.Thus, changes in everyday life that have taken place in recent decades have led to the fact that "men's business" is almost gone, and the boy had no opportunity to prove himself a real man in the family, which primarily occurs assimilation child sexual roles.Although such changes in the domestic sphere have occurred in almost all developed countries, and we have even expressed to a lesser extent, a feature of the situation is that the boy is not less difficult to express themselves outside the family.Intensive ban on negative aspects of masculinity (smoking, drinking, fighting) is combined in our society with a negative attitude to the activity, competitiveness and the various forms of aggression.(It should be noted that the tolerance of parents and caregivers in child aggressiveness varies greatly in different cultures, so, according to the cross-cultural studies, American parents are 8-11 times more tolerant of aggression than in all other studied societies.) In this case, social channelsaggression within acceptable forms (sports, games) we have is not enough.Slightly better is the case with other "socialized" forms of masculine activity of children and adolescents (engineering design, hobbies, independent participation in professional activities and so on. P.), Which would be a powerful source of positive masculine identity.
particularly sad phenomenon in terms of the formation of models of masculinity is the school.For example, a study conducted by AS Volovich, showed that among those students graduating classes that best meet the requirements of the school, the vast majority (85%) are girls.And the young man, trapped in this category differ from other more traditionally feminine qualities (good behavior, diligence, sense of duty, and so on. P.), While the quality characterizing the intellect or social activity, virtually not been submitted.
In this connection it is interesting to recall the selected Yu-Bron fenbrennerom especially the Soviet educational system, distinguishing it from that adopted in the United States: evaluation of activities and the individual students in their contributions to the overall result;Use as methods of public criticism, or praise;recognition of the most important duty of every assistance to other team members.Thus, encouraged primarily feminine qualities: focus on other, affiliative and expressive tendencies.Apparently, such a difference in the possibility of manifestation of masculinity was initially due to the different orientation of education.If the most common understanding of the purpose of education in the United States has emphasized the masculine character - "in American culture, children are encouraged to be independent and self-sufficient", the Soviet Union, this orientation is rather feminine, "the child must be a worthy member of the team."
What is the overall picture?Permanent and insistence: "be a man", "do not you behave like a man," "you're a boy", combined with the lack of opportunities to form and be a male type of behavior in any of the spheres of life.It can be assumed that this situation results primarily towards passivity, abandonment of activities proposed to carry out in the feminine form and on a par with the girls.It is better to be passive than "not a man", because in this case is the ability to take credit for the whole set of masculine qualities, believing that they could appear in a more appropriate situation.
There is another way to search for opportunities for the manifestation of masculinity - this time not in a dream, and out-of-social basis.First of all, striking that the majority of members of informal groups of teenagers that have appeared in recent years in large quantities in our country - boys and masculinity emphasizes both in appearance (leather, metal), and the core values (the cult of risk, force) and the way of spending free time (fighting, strength exercises, the race on motorcycles, etc.) -.. Thus, deviant behavior appears as an additional channel of mastering male sex role, as the opportunities offered in this respect by society, not great.
discussed the difficulties of male socialization, we analyze the features of assimilation of female sexual roles.
newborn girls "lucky", of course, more.From the very beginning it has an appropriate role model the floor, so it will no longer have to give up their primary identification with the mother.Doctors, kindergarten teachers, teachers only help her to form an adequate image of himself as a woman.The absence of a culture of hard stereotype "real woman", a variety of ideas about the truly feminine qualities also facilitate the formation of gender role identity, giving the girl opportunities fit the stereotype, while remaining itself.At the same time, as shown by recent studies already in a relationship with the mother of the girls have their own particular problems, with serious consequences for its sex-role socialization.
One of the most important tasks of the formation of the child's personality is the destruction of the primary symbiotic dyad "mother - child", in which the child does not perceive himself and does not actually exist as a separate entity.Particularly relevant conduct of the boundaries between himself and his mother is just for girls, since in view of the specifics of their own experience (being a woman, her daughter, and so on. N.) Mother tends increasingly perceived as a continuation of his daughter, not a son.This manifests itself in a variety of small parts: a close physical contact with baby-girl, more restrictions of physical activity, frequently attributing the daughter of any requirements for the identification of the base with her.As a result, the relationship with the mother of the girls are not only more symbiotic and intense than that of a boy, they are also more charged ambivalence.It pushes the girl to look for someone else who could also give her a sense of security and confidence, but it would not be fraught with the threat of dissolution is still weak I am a child in a familiar dyad.
It soon turns out that in addition to always located next to my mother there is another person - the father, the importance and the significance of which has been stressed by others.And most often it is the "important" person pays relatively little attention to the girl.The desire to attract him can be associated with a number of negative experiences: first, the sense of self is secondary in comparison with the attractive world of men;secondly, the need to somehow prove himself, to show to get attention.Several Roughly, we can say that this interweaving of these two trends in the future determines the specificity of gender role socialization of girls.Thus, for example, received in the West, the empirical evidence suggests that the behavior of daughters-doshkolnits limited intervention of parents are twice as likely than sons behavior.Naturally, this situation also contributes to a sense of the girl of his insignificance.
Even more aggravated by the experience influenced by traditional cultural patterns.Numerous studies of literature and television programs for children showed virtually everywhere that the most important way of women features offered therein, is its invisibility: women much less represented in leading roles, names, pictures, their activities are less interesting and socially rewarded, oftenreduced to help the hero, man.Based on these data, it is not surprising that already from the age of 5-6 years, and then the number of girls saying they want to be boys, and playing boyish games, greatly exceeds the number of boys who express cross-sexual preferences.
In Soviet writings for children, along with a woman in this way, there is another, an example of which can serve as a "mom-chef" or "Mom-policeman" of the poems Mikhalkov: listing the different professions, .shtor considers it necessary to emphasize that "different motherWe need ", clearly suggesting that if children do not learn, they will be guided in the" assessment "moms on their professional status.