First aid for children
Injuries often occur when a child falls or impact of any solid object.In this case there is damage to the subcutaneous tissue and soft tissue.Bruising can be combined with more severe injuries - impaired ligaments, a concussion, a broken bone.
signs of injury are pain, swelling, bruising, slight dysfunction.If damaged ligaments, the pain and violation of the arms or legs functions are expressed more sharply.
First Aid is the application of cold on the sore part of the body (ice bag, a towel soaked in cold water).If a strong contusion limb is necessary to impose a pressure bandage, to ensure peace, stillness, elevated position.To reduce the pain, you can give analgin or Amidopyrine.Extensive injury requires treatment in a medical institution.
concussion of the brain can occur when a head injury: marked loss of consciousness, vomiting, pale skin, shortness of breath, rapid pulse.
First aid is the creation of complete rest.The child should be put on the back, head raised slightly.If he is unconsciou
joint dislocation may occur as a result of the fall of a child or a nasty blow to the joint area.Thus there is a displacement of the bone included in the joint, a gap or joint capsule distension, vascular damage nerves.For dislocation is characterized by pain in the affected joint, its deformity, limited mobility and forced position of the limbs.
First aid is to ensure the immobility of the injured limb: the dislocation of the upper limb of the child's hand must be hung on the headscarf, the bottom - to lay the child on a stretcher propped injured leg pillows, blankets, clothes.Do not attempt to straighten a dislocated itself.Child must be urgently delivered in hospital.When transporting the patient to change the position of the limbs, in which it found itself after the dislocation, it is impossible.
Fractures bones can result from falling when jumping, hitting with an object.At the turn of the observed severe pain, change in shape of the limbs, restriction of mobility, sometimes abnormal mobility at the fracture site.In severe cases, it may be offset fragments of bone, violation of the integrity of the skin (fractures with displacement, open fracture) may develop traumatic shock.
First aid consists in the imposition of retention bandages, with an open fracture - a sterile bandage, if necessary - to stop the bleeding by using the harness, tires imposition.As the bus can use the board, stick, thick cardboard, twigs, which are wrapped with cotton cloth or clothing.The tire is applied very carefully, so as not to cause additional damage and severe pain.In the absence of bus injured arm can bandage to the body, and foot - to a healthy leg.In all cases it is necessary to fix at least two joints (above and below the fracture).The victim is a child must be how to get to a hospital as soon as possible.
before sending him to the hospital can be given an anesthetic (analgin, aminopyrine).
internal injuries, closed and open, having a fall from a height, severe injury, and as a result of traffic accidents.The lung tissue is damaged by fractures of the ribs, collarbone.Open the chest injury may occur as a result of injuries inflicted by sharp or pointed object (scissors, needles, a metal rod, crochet hook, etc..).This air enters the chest cavity, shifts its organs, can cause shock, possible cardiac injury.
First aid is applied to the chest circular bandage.When you open a trauma on top of sterile wipes impose a piece of oilcloth (better lubricated with petroleum jelly), which prevents air from entering the chest cavity.To reduce the pain give analgin.Child must be urgently delivered in hospital.Transportation is carried out in a semi-sitting position.
When closed injuries observed abdominal bruising, swelling, muscle tension, stomach pain, vomiting, and sometimes shock.In open trauma wound in the abdominal wall may fall omentum and bowel loops.
necessary to create the affected full rest, lay on his stomach cold, with an open injury - a sterile bandage on the wound (precipitated authorities can not reduce a).The child should be rushed to the hospital, it is transported in a horizontal position.No medications and drinking can not be given.
Entry of foreign bodies, alien body objects, introduced in the tissue through a natural orifice (the respiratory tract, ear, eye), or through a wound in infants observed quite often.
The airways may get bits of food, fish bones, seeds, and various small objects (parts of toys, pins, pins, pens tips, pencils, etc.).Contact with foreign body occurs suddenly, usually during meals, which is facilitated by laughing, crying, fear, cough.The airways may get food particles during vomiting, regurgitation.Cases falling objects into the larynx is most often observed.At the same time a healthy child suddenly appears sharp paroxysmal cough, dyspnea develops, sometimes with loss of consciousness, cyanosis of the face, difficulty arises sharply (stenotic) breathing.
Small foreign bodies during deep breaths can get behind the glottis into the trachea, bronchi.Foreign bodies pointed and angular forms can hook into the mucous membrane of the larynx.At the same time there are a sore throat, blood in the sputum.These cases are the most dangerous, because at first the child is retained free breath, and after a few hours can occur suffocation.After contact with a foreign body in the trachea and bronchi, breathing is disrupted to a lesser extent, cough can also calm down, and parents often do not seek medical help, which further leads to the development of serious diseases of the bronchi and lungs.
First aid in case of a foreign body in the respiratory tract is the immediate delivery of the baby in the hospital.
After contact with a foreign body (fish bones, toys and other particles.) Throat also need to see a doctor, do not try to remove it yourself.You can not knock a child back in the hope that the foreign body "will be held."It can only penetrate deeper in the throat wall and cause damage to it.
foreign body which has got into the ear (. Beads, peas, small suit toys, insects, etc.) can be located in the cartilage of the ear canal and the eardrum is damaged - in the tympanic cavity.Removal of foreign bodies is carried out by a specialist.When zapolzaniya insects in the ear the child experiences a painful sensation, severe itching.In this case, you should kill the insect, pouring into the ear canal 8-10 drops of hot oil (sunflower oil, vaseline, olive) or glycerol.If the ear has got swellable foreign body (peas, a piece of wood, cork), it is necessary to pour into the ear canal a few drops of alcohol for dehydration and wrinkling of a foreign body.
foreign body from the nose you can try to remove by blowing the nose.In this case the child should close the healthy nostril with your finger and offer much blow his nose.If there is no result should see a specialist.
Attempts to remove a foreign body from the ear or the nose with the help of any tools can lead to a deeper his introduction to damage adjacent tissues (eg, perforation of the tympanic membrane).
After contact with a foreign body (sand grains, particles of coal, metal, and others.) Into the eye, a strong burning sensation, tearing, photophobia.Removal of foreign body holds ophthalmologist.No rinsing do not be yourself.If at the same time a child is damaged eyelid, it is necessary to carefully clean it swab dipped in hydrogen peroxide, gently lubricate the edge of the wound with 1% solution of brilliant green, apply a sterile bandage and take the child to the eye doctor.
Burns are fairly common type of injury in young children.The most frequent thermal burns caused by exposure to high temperature (touching a hot object, the impact of hot liquid, fire, etc..).Chemical burns occur in cases where children have access to the acids (vinegar, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid) or a caustic alkali (caustic soda).Elektroozhogi occur when exposed to electric current (open sockets, bare wire), as well as being struck by lightning.
If the burn covers a large surface area of the body, develops burn shock at the beginning of which the child sharply excited, and then slowed down.It is noted pale skin, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate, lowering blood pressure.In young children may develop a shock defeat at the burn even 3-5% of the body surface.
With superficial burns first aid is to cool the burned surface running water for 15-20 minutes, which causes narrowing of blood vessels and prevents the formation of bubbles.The same effect has a bandage with a solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate), which "dubit" skin.At a deep and extensive burns to the affected area impose a sterile bandage.In all cases, the child immediately brought to the hospital.Before transporting must be given painkillers, warm the baby.
Sunburn is a kind of heat.It occurs when a child under prolonged exposure to direct sunlight.Kid becomes sluggish, he does not sleep, lose appetite.On the skin appear sharp redness, soreness, swelling, in some cases - bubbles.Increased body temperature.
should immediately stop exposure to the sun, let the victim drink plenty of liquids, to create peace.The affected skin surface smeared with cream, vegetable oil, protect from the sun until all the symptoms have disappeared.The formation of bubbles can be applied bandage with potassium permanganate solution for 5-10 minutes.Revealed the bubbles treat aseptic ointments prescribed by a doctor.
Burns acid solution it is necessary to wash the affected area with plenty of water for 10-15 minutes and then rinse with a weak alkaline solution (1 tablespoon of baking soda per cup of water).With burns alkali solution as the surface washed with copious amounts of water (10-15 min), then moistened with a weak solution (2.1%) acetic acid or citric acid.
Elektroozhog arises not only in the place of direct current impact, but also on the way of its passage through the body.Thus there are three types of burns: current marks (in the surface layers of the skin), contact burns and thermal burns that affect all layers of the soft tissue and bone.The area and depth of the damage depends on the magnitude of the voltage.Burns caused by electrocution, have one feature - they are painless.But at the same time the child develop more severe general phenomena - can be fainting, respiratory arrest, seizures, and even shock.In severe lesions can occur instant death.
First Aid is the immediate isolation of the child from the effects of electric current (it is necessary to turn off the switch, unscrew the cap).If the current is turned off, you can not touch the victim with your bare hands.It is necessary to wear rubber gloves, wrap your hands silk or woolen cloth or use a dry wooden stick.The stand should be on a dry board, glass or rubber boots.Then, the victim makes artificial respiration, if necessary, give breathe ammonia, rubbing cologne warm.In place of the burn impose a sterile bandage.The patient must be urgently delivered in hospital.
After electric shock for a long time in children observed increased nervousness, irritability, fearfulness, poor sleep, fatigue.These children require special attention and respect.
Hypothermia due to exposure to low ambient temperature can be expressed in perfrigeration, frostbite and freezing.When perfrigeration skin (most often on the hands and feet) thickens, it becomes red or bluish-purple color.Chilblains often observed in spring and autumn when the cold damp weather.
Frostbite in children weakened (even D ° C), those who wear tight shoes, with prolonged exposure to the cold.Most often damaged fingers and toes, ears and nose.
case of brief action of cold after rewarming the skin reddens and swells, there are pain, burning sensation, after 2-3 days they pass.In case of prolonged exposure to cold skin pales drastically later appear bubbles with light or bloody fluid;in severe cases may occur necrosis of soft tissue and even bone, develop gangrene.
First Aid perfrigeration is warming the extremities at normal room temperature, good massage helps.If frostbite of the hands or feet of their carefully drawn out and placed in a warm (18-20 ° C) water, gently massaging from toes up.Slowly over 20-30 minutes the water temperature was adjusted to 37 ° C.Then gently wipe the skin gets wet movements, rubbed with alcohol, impose a dry sterile dressing and wrapped up warmly.Frostbitten ears, nose and cheeks warmed by rubbing in a circular motion.Rub frostbite with snow is impossible, as pieces of ice can scratch the skin, it is better to do it with your hand or a woolen mitten.Severe frostbite treated in a hospital.
When freezing occurs decrease in body temperature, the skin turns pale, heart rate slows, a child loses consciousness, can occur body stiffness.Frequent freezing complications are inflammation of the lungs, kidneys, digestive disorders, mental disorders, memory loss.
First Aid is warming the baby in the bath with water temperature of 37 ° C, massaging, then the child is given a hot drink, food, placed in a warmed bed.In all cases, the child should see a doctor immediately.
poisoning caused Once ingested a poisonous substance (through the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, skin, mucous membranes).Poisoning can occur acids, alkalis, necessary medication, and others. In young children it is often impossible to determine what substance caused the poisoning, therefore in all cases of poisoning unrecognized poison entered through the mouth, it is necessary, regardless of the accident of time to wash out the stomach with plenty of water or causevomiting, then give hot tea, warm the baby.
If gastric lavage is not possible, let your child drink a lot of milk, jelly, mucous broths, t. E. Products envelop the gastric mucosa.It is necessary to address urgently to hospital.
assume you know: the child swallowed the acid, then in the wash water, add soda or magnesia (30 g per 200 ml of water), and if the alkali - a weak solution of vinegar (100 ml of a 6% solution per 1 liter of water).In both cases, the drink is helpful to add pieces of ice.
When carbon monoxide poisoning victim immediately bring to fresh air, give to smell ammonia.He needs hospitalization.
bites of poisonous animals can cause painful disorders and even death.If a child is bitten by a bee or wasp, it is necessary to carefully remove the stinger and apply a bandage with ammonia.It is impossible to place the bite put the land, as the infection is introduced at the same time in the wound.When you bite and implementation of forest tick should not try to remove it mechanically, because his head might remain in the child's skin and cause inflammation.In this case, several times taken root lubricate the tick with oil or any fat cream, which will lead to his death.Then the insect can be easily removed rocking motion.
If a child bitten by a snake or rabid animal it is necessary to address urgently to a hospital for special treatment (administration of serum vaccination).