Monogamous family : crisis or evolution?
can not but cause surprise panic talk not only philistines, but also domestic demographers and sociologists about the family crisis.What fueled this pessimism?As a rule, during the last century refer to the same factors: increasing the number of single men and women, a growing number of divorces, reduced fertility rates, it becomes more "incomplete" families, intensified extramarital affairs, etc. Let us consider two of the mentioned empirical..laws - divorce and fertility.
curve of divorces during the current century is continuously growing.For example, it increased by about 3-fold, while the number of divorce is more than 240 times, about 4 thousand. Divorces, by 1990 the population was registered in 1913 at 95 million. Synod of the Orthodox population.
value of divorces is estimated by experts ambiguous.Often, divorce interpret as a threat to the family, stressing the negative consequences especially for children.Since the second half of the XX century.divorce came to be seen as an integral componen
Whatever estimated divorce from the perspective of morality - good or evil - statement of the problem to prevent it futile.Admittedly questionable attempts to explain the growth curve of divorces to any particular factor.And the motives of divorcing themselves, and the subsequent self-reflection of the former spouses can not shed light on the truth behind the termination of marriage.One of the women described poslerazvodnuyu situation in the warm tonality (flourished, improve their health, appeared confident, more beautiful, and put on weight, etc...), Another - operates exclusively cold tones (divorce wanted, but release do not feel, after a divorce -loneliness, inadequacy; it is similar to the funeral of the friend, etc.)...
increase in the number of divorces, in my opinion, not least the predetermined transition from "matchmaking" as a way of marriage to the individual selectivity, or more generally the planet to a fundamentally different type of family relations.partner Freedom of choice and freedom implicitly implies the dissolution of marriage, if it develops unsuccessfully.
other relevant family problem - fertility problem.
deny the sharp decline in fertility would be absurd.Thus, in Leningrad in 1990 among all births accounted for 62% of the first-born young mothers.The proportion of births of second and subsequent children has decreased.And it worries;The first child appears almost spontaneously, his birth in most cases is not planned.Compared to previous years, according to the same source, the number of births to women under 20 years at 2% and juveniles by 11%, ie. E. Increase in the number of births occurs only in those cohorts where sexuality is not directly related toprocreation.
fact reduce fertility, thus, no doubt.How do we explain this?The vast majority of researchers attributed the fall in fertility with a sharp deterioration in the socio-economic situation in the country.And this is the truth.For even in those countries where the socio-economic situation much better, having fewer children make up the majority of the family (for example, in Germany or France).Hence, I insist, all of these processes, including divorces and procreation, primarily due to the historical type of family.
Back in the early '80s I was hypothesized that there are three types of historical ideal of monogamy (see Hunger .: SI family stability: the sociological and demographic aspects of the AL., 1984).This idea has not gone unnoticed.Some experts (Antonov AI Borisov VA) betrayed her anathema;other (Harutyunyan, M. Yu, Zaikina GA, Malyarova NV) - discerned in it a certain heuristic principle.It passed almost a decade, and now a few demographers and sociologists have begun to develop the concept of diversity of family types."The historical type of family - both the old and the new - sets only general limits within which can be realized corresponding to this type of family model ... This diversity has a dual foundation.On the one hand, it is related to the ongoing transition to a modern type of family, the other - from the post-transition pluralism of its forms "(AG Vishnevsky, M., 1992..).Not all of the above is indisputable.The main thing - the recognition of the multiplicity of the ideal family and types of the actual diversity of their forms.
analysis of the family as any system has two vectors: one aimed at the disclosure of the internal mechanism of its functioning and interaction of the elements;the other - to the surrounding world of the family, which is the interaction with its external operation.If the relationship of the family and society in the domestic scientific literature has been given a lot of attention, the study of the immanent laws remained in the shadows.Transferring research focus on their own laws set the task of non-traditional definition of "family."
Family is a collection of individuals, consisting of at least one of the three types of relationships: consanguinity (brother - brother, brother - sister, etc...), Generation (parents - children), property (husband - wife).The nature of these relationships (roughly speaking, authoritarian, egalitarian) can, in my opinion, serve as a criterion for determining the stage of development of monogamy.Following this logic, it is possible to construct a three ideal types of family history: the patriarchal (or traditional), child-centered (or modern) and marital (or postmodern).
most archaic type - patriarchal.It is based on the dependence of wives on their husbands and children from their parents.
This type is the result of the overthrow of mother right.One illustration of the transition from the mother to the father's account of kinship could serve as a custom "Couvade" (from the French cuvade -. Hatching eggs) found among primitive tribes of Africa.After permission from the burden of the woman immediately begins to daily activities, a man is put to bed.It simulates contractions and postpartum weakness, followed by carefully tended.Father thus demonstrating its crucial role in the reproduction of offspring.
headship of her husband, in particular, reflected in the fact that his hands are concentrated the economic resources and the adoption of major decisions.In accordance with this, and there was a rigid fixation of intra roles.It would be a great oversimplification to believe that the eradication of economic and moral priorities and accompanying head of family traditions going with ease.On the contrary, there is considerable evidence pointing to the complexity and contradictory nature of the process.We are faced with the practical variety of traditional forms.According to MG Pankratova, in the Mari family, for example, the head of the family (4/5 of respondents indicated in the 70s) - man.There remains a family etiquette.Wife and mother of the husband trying to emphasize the prestige of the men - the head of the family.The wife speaks respectfully about her husband (at least in front of guests and outsiders), has special attention to father-in-law.In the home of more than 90% of families retain the inherited division of work by gender.Persistent and sincere reverence for the traditions found in Georgia.
Estonian sociologists have compared the responses of students indigenous nationality from Tartu University and Tbilisi regarding their family orientation.Young people were asked whether premarital sex possible for men and women?Students from Tbilisi responded - only for men, the majority of students from Tartu have not seen a difference in this respect between men and women.Every third Estonian student described the dissolution of marriage as a natural phenomenon.In Tbilisi, such an opinion expressed only 2% of respondents.A third of Georgians said they were about the possibility of divorce, never thought of.Finally, the following question: if there was a conflict between the couple, then he should be allowed?From the point of view of Georgian students, the last word of a man.According to the young people from the University of Tartu, the couple should discuss the causes of the conflict, and only then take the possibility of an agreed solution.Output clear: youth Tbilisi mainly focused on patriarchal values.
More strikingly appear the traces of the classical form of the traditional family in the Central Asian region.In the indigenous population, along with the already-described practices are detected and older.For example, so far in the course of (mostly, however, in rural areas) public demonstration rite sheets after the wedding night.
The Russian patriarchal principles, though not in such a blatant form, and tenacious.I recall two patrilineal tradition: daughter changes its generic name to her husband's surname;family name registry is used in the name of the newborn.
other central axis of the family: parents relationship - children.In the traditional family for many years dominated by the absolute parental authority and authoritarian system of education.
The relationship generation, no doubt, less than a ritual than in the marital relationship.Nevertheless, one of the traditions is quite stable - "matchmaking".V peoples professing Islam, in most cases prenuptial agreements are still concluded between the parents;young people become actors only after that.According to Muslim rules, parents will - the law for children, even if it is directed against their interests.One can only wonder naivety local demographers and anthropologists, who, under the guise of a dubious ideal family stability, tend to protect all without exception patriarchal prescriptions.Here is a typical passage: "... directing the tip of ideological education against the sale and purchase of the bride (bride-price), you can not ignore the connection with this custom elements tradition respectfully subordinate relationship to the older children, and especially to their parents, with the kind of plants to strengthen family and marriagerelations and institution of the family as a whole. "
So, the meaning of the patriarchal monogamy simplistically be reduced to two principles: a tough age and gender subordination and lack of selectivity of the individual at all stages of the family cycle.The principles in this century in different national regions with varying degrees of intensity are reviewed.And when today highlights the crisis, it is necessary to understand, we are talking primarily about the traditional type of family.In fact, the emancipation of women, and all her attendant socio-economic changes have undermined (but not eliminate) the principles of authoritarianism, and as a result -.. Increase in the number of divorces, fertility declines revaluation "virginity" of the concept, etc. Many researchers have seen in these trendsthreat to the family in general, and began to actively call for the restoration of the patriarchy.Do not be mistaken in this regard: a resuscitation attempt it as a form of mass doomed to failure.
the second half of the XIX century.Europe formed detonation-centered type of family.It is characterized by the elevation of the role of the private life, the sensual side of marriage and intimacy.More or less equal relations between husband and wife led to a stable relationship expressive of satisfaction from the marriage, on the one hand, and on the other - to realize that sexuality is practiced within the boundaries of marriage, is not reducible to bear children.All this suggests the couple to think about the need to plan the birth of children and the number of them.Because of this limited reproductive period a short time (within 5-10 years) and the birth of one or two children.Beloved child turns into an object of parental love and attachment stand.Thus, he sunk into oblivion custom of large families.
decision on the number of children taken, for the most part, the couple themselves.Features of external pressure, as practice shows, even a well-designed population policies (eg, such as the French after World War II) is extremely small.It should be emphasized that the family child-centered by nature - few children.
In our country, the behavior of parents, motivated intimate emotional attachment to the children who received the mass distribution in the second half of this century.Even in rural families where the children in the recent past has not been given special attention, with the 60-ies many parents, including those who himself graduated from a primary school, the dream to give children the best possible education.Children, judging by the statements of the majority of respondents villagers - the main sense of family.The changes in this direction are noticed and in Central Asia.According to the observation of local ethnographer in Kyrgyz family, no matter how modest it was budget, sought means to buy clothes for children, visiting their movie, and so on.. Many parents try to give them an education and profession.
Improving the material and spiritual care for the children - a positive phenomenon.However, hypertrophy of the debt, supplemented by a departure from the ascetic tradition, often leads to the opposite result.Damages and excess tenderness.This can be observed in the study of neurotic children.According to clinical studies, the mother of children who suffer from neurosis, in contrast to the mothers in the control group, rarely communicate with the child on an equal footing.They impose his opinion, not allowing the child to show independence.
not afraid to make a mistake, arguing that the child-centered family type - an essential step in the evolution of monogamy.However, the best evidence - detailed consideration of the nature of the marital relationship, and then the generation of relations.
Limbo selectivity in premarital period determined the new family policy.As soon as the choice - the basis of the individual (Porshnev), then living together as husband and wife in the absence of ritualized expectations and clearly set out the roles requires adapting their individual plans and behavior patterns with respect to each other.In other words, the number has to be closely linked adaptive relationship, each to a greater or lesser (but always in significant) influences the degree of stability of the individual family.And indeed, judging by my empirical material (poll 1978.1981 and 1989.), There are seven niches adaptation: spiritual, psychological, sexual, info, related, cultural and household.These niches have a mobile hierarchical structure, shifts in her pre-determined by the stage of development of the individual family... For example, in the initial stage, ie, in the interval between marriage and the birth of a child, the hierarchy is as follows: spiritual, psychological, sexual, and cultural.In the next stage of "cultural" displaced "home."It would seem that the idea of multi-variant and hierarchy adaptation syndrome is trivial, and yet it is virtually ignored until now.Specialists with an interest in family issues, often one of the adaptive hypertrophy sides.As a rule, the one that corresponds to their scientific profile, and underestimate others.A series of works attributed to a special place of psychological compatibility of spouses."The unity of views, emotional state, mutual understanding, about the same rating life situations, the requirement to cooperate - all included in some way in the concept of mental compatibility."Here we give a broad interpretation of "psychological compatibility", which includes, along with the actual performance of "psychological" (emotional system, character traits, temperament type) elements of spirituality and culture (unity of views, evaluation situations).However, even the adoption of such a boundless interpretation of "psychological" reserves its scope of sexual, domestic and related adaptation.What caused it is this idea of self-sufficiency of psychological compatibility?
Human activity in the industrial city, is known to be regulated by formalized rules, norms and behavioral stereotypes.Relations in the sphere of production regulated by technological standards and status regulations, violation of which entails automatically the disorganization of the labor process.Why?