Family : Do you need to look back into the past ?
«Any attempt on the stereotype of the man appears to infringe on the foundations of the universe."
«Man begins to grow up in a hundred years before his birth," - said a prominent lawyer MNGernet.And I would say - a thousand years: the entire Russian history within each of us.Take a look at yourself, to your family, friends, and you will see: for the most part we are a mark veche assembly and freemen of the Kiev epoch, traces Tatarism and serfdom, and the imprint of Stalinism period of stagnation.Unless we get rid of naive monarchism and of naive optimism, the fatalism and the belief that, perhaps, all by itself arranged that we, in spite of everything, the best, the best ... the best ?!A love of endless fruitless conversations, but from fear or slavery, which is the best squeeze out a drop of life, and from the belief that true justice - in equalization, it is better to advance not to go, but from the people to keep that to argue withbosses - to go against the wind ?!All national drama
How persists connection times?History materialize in national traditions and stereotypes of behavior.Their guardian is a family.Like the chromosome is it - the carrier of social heredity, which plays no less a role in a niche life than biological heredity.Socio-genetic information is recorded, it can be said, is encoded in interpersonal relationships in the family, stereotypes of behavior of adult family members, and from them is transmitted to the child.From an early age, before even as he begins to clearly understand his actions and control his behavior clearly, the child firmly, though often unconsciously, learns the language and faith, methods and standards of behavior, way of thinking, worldview, social attitudes, values system, opinions about the fundamental problems of existence.Sociologists and psychologists have found that although learning takes place throughout a person's life, it is learned in childhood determines its lifetime, drastic changes in behavior patterns, the so-called conversion, extremely rare.Moreover, not only the interpersonal intimate informal relationships, but also the social, economic, political, modeled and structured on the model of human interpersonal relationships inherent mainly family.Such is the fate of the vast majority of people, the units overcome pledged as a child;mutations in the "genes" social heredity as rare as mutations in the human chromosomes.Indeed, "we all come from childhood," as Antoine de Saint-Exupéry "
So, it is in the family born not only man, but also a citizen This is because the family - a kind of a social microcosm:.. Its structure isclosest to the "original" model of society at large in it in a nutshell is the whole gamut of human relations inherent in a large society in fact, the family -... is a system of relationships of marriage and kinship, economic and legal, moral and psychological family relations interconnected withsocial, ethnic, political and economic relations in a large society. in a modified form the family concentrates the whole set of them, so that children from birth are included in the system of social relations.
should not, of course, lose sight of, and we will not forget, an important part of pre-school and school institutions, literature and the arts, the media, non-governmental organizations, comrades, in the younger generation of self-socialization.However, even now, when the value of these 'agents' education is much increased compared with the past, the family, as shown by the case studies, is still in first place.Children for the most part still want to be like their parents.
What comes first - family relationships or relationships in society?There are sociologists who consider all the important relationships and functions of large social groups simply by extrapolation, reflection, projection of ideas, concepts, relationships, dominant in the family.Others insist on the primacy of relationships in a large society.Still others believe that the interaction between different levels of interpersonal relationships leads to the establishment of the modal system of relations.I am of the third point of view, and, proceeding from it, I try to look at the Russian society in the late XIX - early XX century.- The link between interpersonal relationships in a peasant family - the primary group in the peasant community - secondary group and socio-political relations in society.
The peasantry (hereinafter refers to only the Russian peasants) dominated large paternal family, which included three generations.She was not only related, but also, just as importantly, the economic union based on the division of labor by sex and age, in which the head of the family (the highway) belonged to a dominant position, and marital property is collectively owned.My father's a peasant family - a small absolutist state.Bolshak (usually the most experienced and older men) disposed of family labor, distributing, managing and watching them work, analyzed the intra-family disputes, punish the guilty, followed morality, shopped, concluded transactions, paid taxes, he served as the head of the serpent cult andresponsible to the country, society and the state for the conduct of members of the family, which he is always and everywhere represent.The role of the highway was enhanced by the fact that all family members can enter into any transaction only through the head of the family.Bolshak could give to employees of his son and his younger brother against their will.
Under the yoke of the position of the patriarch of the family is sometimes very difficult.However, the custom did not recognize the rights of children require a partition to function principle: "Children do not share with his father."Only when the highway lavished marital property, the custom section admitted against his will to stand out the share of the property separated, and that the community was carried out, which had the right to intervene in the sphere of family relations.
tried to summarize characteristics of family relations, the principles upon which they were built.The first principle - of hierarchy and inequality of family members.All humiliated in front of the head of the family, women - to men, younger - before the older children - in front of adults.At the same time head of the family can love households and sincerely take care of them, "A woman is standing in the background - says a well-known end of the XIX century ethnographer.ANMinh - she has no voice should unquestioningly obey her husband and older, its relation to the latter as a worker to the owner, she often goes to him, but the beating of her husband did not put him in reproach and zauryad strewed them on the unfortunate misbehavior of kakoy-libobut more completely innocent, under the hand of a drunk. "
far from ideal attitude of parents to children."The peasant worldview there is no point on the responsibility of parents to children, but there is a responsibility to parents of children in exaggerated form, the fifth commandment is especially beloved."Nepochetniki" - the most insulting nickname for the children ", - pointed out the former farmer in 1929," The fathers of child rearing duty compose exclusively on mothers and children themselves to keep strictly.Children are raised negligently wrong, ignorant and rude.Nursing is no more of them.Children very early, from 8 years old are forced to work ", - noted ethnographer PSEfimenok.
Violence recognizes perfectly normal and the main impact of the form.Physically punished by children, most often small;but the rod did not overlook the adult children.Suffer from beating women.And what happened, if she cheated on her husband, watched personally Gorky July 15, 1891 in the village. Kandybovke Nicholas County Kherson province.The victim tied naked, bound wife to the cart, he climbed on a cart and whipped out his wife whip.The cart, accompanied by hooting crowd moved along the village street.In other areas, according to Gorky, a "traitor" treated "humanely", "expose women, smeared with tar, showered with chicken feathers and so drive down the street in the summer smeared with molasses and tied to a tree to be devoured by insects."
The family prevails the forced collectivism and centralism, the common interests of the family, as they understand the highway, not just dominate, they are some kind of absolute value, the individual interests of individual family members shall not be considered.This is clearly manifested in marriage.Young married not for love, but by the will of the parent, which in this case does not reflect the whim of the elderly, and the interests of the family as a whole, because the marriage was seen as something like a property transaction.
This allows us without any stretch attributed peasant patriarchal family to the authoritarian type, where there was no hint of democracy.In figurative expression of the well-known researcher MJFenomenova have acted "peculiar, rough Darwinism: tacitly admits that the strong should have the first place, and the weak must yield to it."
reader, perhaps, it is clear that the patriarchal peasant family was not ideal, how she seemed to superficial observers of peasant life (some think now), the focus of the order, peace and prosperity, the guarantor of the interests of each and all together.It has always been a source of internal contradictions, tensions, which only partly filmed through the centuries worked out rules of family life and family behavior.But it would be a mistake not to see the advantages of this family, its compliance with all the conditions of that time of life.This line was a guarantee of its long existence, the expediency of the system of family relationships, which today can cause hasty criticism of people who grew up in very different circumstances.Authoritarianism provide sufficiently high efficiency of the family members on the basis of division of labor and a high physical exertion.The patriarchal family gave shelter feeble old age, insured against illness.But probably the most significant was the fact that no serious spiritual interests or personality in the peasant has not awakened sufficiently.Life was so hard, and elementary, that the purpose of life was reduced to just to survive."The horrific ignorance, misunderstanding and ignorance of almost everything that comes out of the close horizons agricultural life, the weight of prejudice and superstition, living since time immemorial, - said a well-known country doctor AIShingaryov - naturally it combined with the fact that "the oppression of powerful needs is a powerful master and teacher of life."
Russian peasant family lived in the framework and under the tutelage of the rural communities of ground pig, or the world, as they called her peasants.This social organization, according to KSAksakov, LNTolstoy, GIAssumption, VISemevskii and many other experts in Russian life, was the alma mater for the peasants, determines their whole lifestyle.A community for researchers was that Rome, which inevitably brought them all the roads on which they wandered in search of truth and Russian foundations of Russian life.What was a Russian pig rural community?
community had a wide range of duties, provided the redistribution of land, which was not in the private and in the collective communal property, layout and collection of taxes, to civil and minor criminal cases between members of the community, defended the interests of the peasants to the state, landlords, etc., Carried outsocial control, took care of the sick and infirm, etc.Peasants united in community economic and class interests, social struggle, justice, religious life, leisure activities, mutual aid.Practically in all its activities the peasants were primarily members of the community, all of their public relations carried out either within the community or were mediated by it.The state had to do not with the individual farmers and the community.During the execution of public duties responsible community as a whole, it also was the official conductor of ideas, attitudes, and norms that are approved by the State.But the conductor is not blind, but flexible, selective.The community has adapted the supreme guidance, but consciously or unconsciously distorted if these instructions were contrary to the interests of either, or with tradition.
So, on the one hand, the community led the entire life of the peasants, meet their immediate needs and performed in front of the state defender of their interests.On the other hand, it was the administrative police authority, by which the state withdraws from the peasants taxes, recruit and keep the peasants in line.On the one hand, the community had an informal character of a democratic institution, spontaneously emerged in the neighborhood and the need to force the peasants hostel.On the other hand, it has been officially recognized by the organization, which was used by the ruling class and the government for their own purposes.
In sociological terms of the community was a small social group, although it was a relatively large number - from 20 to 500 people of both sexes.The peasants had a high frequency of direct informal contact and are highly interdependent.
Important features of the community should include the enormous role of public opinion and effective system of informal social control, which served as the main regulators of the behavior of peasants, preoccupation with the individual peasant community, it, so to speak, tightness, compulsion and regulation of its business and other activities.Although solutions to the peasant gathering - the supreme organ of the community - are taken by a majority vote, but the dissenting minority, let alone a single farmer, we had to submit to the majority becauseWe have not been able to enforce their views.
Communal ownership combined features of collective and private property.Land owned by the community on a common gathering razvёrstyvalas between all muzhch
ins-workers (or on a different principle), but ownership of the land itself is carried out individually by peasants.
community also controlled rent, sell, mortgage and inherit land.Next, the community collectively at a gathering produces a crop rotation system, divided the land into fields, it is determined that the sow in what field, agricultural work, etc.But every farmer to farm on their own sites.Communal land ownership form, together with its attendant strip farming, crop rotation and compulsory mutual responsibility have created a type of relations of production, in which community members in all their actions are interrelated and interdependent, and all production activities of each of them took place on the general plan and under community supervision.As economic activity - the most important type of activity, type of relations with the peasant communities in this region have a decisive influence on his relationship with the community and in all other areas of his life.That industrial relations in the community have created a type of public relations, in which the peasant community was absorbed.
Community could not, of course, like serfdom, is fully pin down a peasant.However, in all material matters of peasant life, peasant behavior normalized and the deviation from the norm is minimal, due to the fact that the possibility of exposure to the individual farmer in the community were insignificant, while the impact on the community opportunities are endless peasant.For example, before the Stolypin reforms in 1906 dvorohozyain could leave the community, but at the cost of gratuitous transfer of land, which was in its use, and the right to its possession of the future in the community.Young farmer could achieve partition active and able-bodied father (and brothers) against the will of his father, but at the cost of concessions in their favor a significant proportion of the property, which would be due to him at the peaceful settlement of the issue.
preoccupation with the peasant community is largely smoothed common interests of the majority of the peasants, which stemmed from the fact that the property differentiation is not reached devastating proportions.Preoccupation with the peasant did not produce a traumatic effect on his psyche and also for the reason that the peasant - in any case, the vast majority of farmers - did not seem that he is enslaved community.The individuality, the feeling of "I" were still so little it developed that the "I" harmoniously and organically merged with the "we" to the community.