"Golden Age" and the crisis of the family in Europe from 1960 to the present day
women's labor and role stereotypes
Economic growth in Western and Central Europe in the 50's, late 60's - early 70-ies.He formed a strong demand for female labor.Women make up 37 to 43% of all workers in the industrialized countries of Europe.While the proportion of women in the total number of employees has not changed significantly, in all European industrialized countries has registered a tendency to increase the number of married women engaged in professional work.In the Federal Republic of Germany, 40% of women who married in 1962 at the age of 25 to 30 years, were employed.After 10 years working already 48% of all married women in this age group.By 1982, their share rose to 59%.Similar growth rates were calculated for the older age groups.The number of working married women with children increased from 1950 to 1970.increasingly, what is the number of working women who are childless.Of course, the proportion of working married women substantially decreases with increasing number of children.Work o
Statistical data suggest that an increasing number of married women deliberately continued to operate, despite marriage and motherhood, but they also reflect the same.the fact that motherhood and work is still difficult to combine. The increase from the 50's. the number of employees in the specialty of married women, not least due to the growing proportion of female-dominated occupations that require higher qualifications, provide a high level of self-identification, in part, primarily on stateservice allows to occupy a certain position spectrum of female occupations has changed dramatically: the share of employment in industry fell from over 50% to 30%, the proportion of female employees (especially in health, education and culture.as well as the public and municipal administration) since the beginning of the century increased more than tenfold.Although the majority of women is still among the categories of low-paid workers, these structural changes indicate a shift from employment as a temporary "burn-in" to full-fledged work in the specialty, which increasingly allows women to self-identify and obtain the satisfaction from work.Increasing the number of women who are employed are not from case to case, and on an ongoing basis throughout life, exacerbated the structural contradiction between traditional family life and work vnedomashnim married women and mothers.
More and more women to limit themselves the roles of housewife and mother see a monotonous and poor social contacts lifestyle.
The main purpose of employment of married women in the 20-30-or 50-ies.was clearly "family-oriented" (the majority of women working to supplement the family budget, because the men did not have enough earnings).In the 70 years to the fore increasingly clear out personal motives.Women say they want their work to provide their own income, the relative independence from the husband to obtain satisfaction from the profession or expand arising in the professional work of social contacts.
growth of the professional interests of married women, not least reveals the fact that with the increase in life expectancy of children after separation is at least 20 years old when the conditions change again raises the question of meaningful activities.At the same time, at work there was a change that substantially restrict the opportunity for professional growth after a long break in work.In XVIII-XIX centuries.in most families children lived in the house until his parents died.The role of the housewife and mother remained until the end of the life of a self-sufficient, exhaustive and exhausting.Today, it is not.Due to the dramatically increased life expectancy, reduce the age of marriage and lower fertility rates change family phases of development and individual life has changed significantly.Born the last child left the parental home when the mother is not even fifty years old.Almost 20 years after the couple spends the farm without children, "empty nest."That is why in this critical phase of marriages break up, which was a frequent occurrence in recent years.On average, a woman loses a spouse, when she 69 years, and then lived for about nine years old widow.Problems search for meaning in life, isolation, mental and social crises arise here with the growing acuteness.Triple severity of maternal, household and work, many women assume, apart from material and social incentives, bearing in mind the prospect of this phase of life "after parenthood," resigned to widowhood or expected given the increase in the risk of divorce.
Multiple load working married women is due to their lack of exemption from domestic work and family, or by formulating a historical point of view, the phenomenon of delay in the adaptation of role behavior of men and women to social structural changes.Of course, the traditional "gender roles" and model "bourgeois family" at the end of the 70s, increasingly came under fire psychologically and sociologically informed criticism.The women's movement demanded equality of the sexes, and sought to implement it within the framework of the "private" sphere of the family.The opening of secondary and higher education for girls and women contributed to awareness and discussion of the status of women in society and in the family.Without a doubt, the public debate has put, at least for part of the population into question traditional notions of gender roles.But recent studies have consistently confirmed that the recruitment, assessment and practical role behavior only slightly adapted to the increased labor activity of married women.Throughout the wife is busy preparing food and daily care of children, regardless of whether it works or not.Resolution of problems arising in relations with the kindergarten and school, mainly take the woman.Taking care of elderly parents, organization of family celebrations and the like are also largely relates to the field of women's tasks.Typical man still feels himself distracted from his role as the main "breadwinner" primarily responsible for the external sphere of activity: for example, "paper war" with the authorities.The farm he will soon need repairs (which has the advantage that it is irregular and gives an opportunity to demonstrate the technical competence) and take care of the car.This applies to the husbands of working women.A study in the mid 70s.Austria among young working mothers, research has shown that issues related to the household, most women are solved, while contacts with outsiders family parties and important economic tasks carried out mostly husbands.
In the 60-70-ies., Ie,in the period when the "division of labor" between a man and a woman is constantly publicly discuss, share their husbands, wives significantly helped in the work on the house, rose only slightly.On the other hand, apparently, men's participation in child rearing has increased slightly more.Professional work of the men, meanwhile, is absolutely a priority, the men involved in the education of children takes in relation to it a subordinate position.The requirements and needs of the professional life, the pursuit of unlimited professional duties, high physical and mental stress at work, etc.limit the ability of women in the upbringing of children.In practice, education remains in the hands of women.The ongoing since 1945 "feminization" of public education and pedagogy gave this form of division of labor, public support.This is reflected in the prevailing mood of the population.In 1974 an empirical study showed that 65% of men believe that they are, in principle, are less suitable for raising children than women.These judgments keep survivability, not least because of the way they get into people's minds.Daughters still help their mothers in domestic work in three to five times more likely than sons.However, with co-i Rotate the number of children common in the 40 th practice early to teach his eldest daughter to kvazimaterinskoy role in relation to the brothers and sisters almost completely disappeared, otcheyu, apparently, can be expected weakening of education, related to the preparation for the role of mother.On the other hand, educational activity mothers of children increased significantly.Perhaps this stereotype and characteristic type of behavior sex (although against the will of the mothers) stimulated by the dominance of women in the process of socialization.In any case, the presentation of a "natural" division of men's and women's responsibilities in the family there is not only married, but already inherent in children and adolescents.However, young people most polls show that started changing these perceptions.According to a survey of Austrians aged 14 to 24 years, 82% of girls and 66% of young people believe that the husband should be involved in the household, if the wife works.Of course, the survey reflects the positions of respondents before their marriage.Their actual workaday behavior in the family - is another matter.Perfect presentation and everyday reality in the field of domestic work often far apart from each other.
clear change in the inherited role stereotype seen in the professional orientation of the young female.So, for example, carried out in 1982 in the German study showed that for girls 15 to 19 years of implementation of their professional desires comes first, and only then the family and motherhood.Changing perceptions reflects the increased demand for labor of girls and women.In the 70s and 80s.the first time for most of the girls and young women has become possible to consider their own professional activities as an essential element of life planning, and apart from its transitional phase before marriage and having children.Of course, the majority of girls planning to interrupt their work for a short time to provide care for children ( "three-phase model"), and then back to work, combining it with family life.
All recent studies have shown that the prevalence of the traditional role stereotyping is correlated with social status and level of education.In the lower layers, and most definitely stick to the traditional way of behavior than in secondary and higher.For example, in the framework of the 1973 study on the wage labor of women in the Federal Republic of Germany 13.2% of working women and only 6.8% of employees said that their husbands do not approve of their work outside the home.With the approval of "The mother should always be in the family;even if the children are grown, she finds enough satisfaction in caring for her husband and children, "agreed the collection of information for the second federal report on the family in 1975 almost one-third of graduates of the school, but only a tenth of entrants and graduates of higher education.Apparently, the stereotype of gender roles is weakening faster than in the higher, the more educated strata of society.
Without a doubt, the requirement of compatibility of wage labor and motherhood is a central element in the process of women's emancipation in the European industrialized societies.At the same time, however, we should not lose sight of the fact that the liberation of women from patriarchal structures can occur only when a woman's right to paid work is recognized and enforced as the right and practical possibility of its participation in public and political life.But the work of women as mothers and housewives, still leads to overload, which make it impossible.This triple load often limits social and political activity, and thus prevents the development of the personality of many women, instead of stimulating it.This applies especially to the majority of those working married women, who are in a group with a low level of remuneration, perform work requiring low and medium skills.His suffering on the job they compensate for the lack of men of earnings;we can not talk about the emancipation as a result of participation in the employment.In addition, wage labor wives are in no way "automatically" does not increase the involvement of men in housework, care and education of children.Therefore, the emancipation of women through their involvement in wage labor can be successful only if the change the division of labor in the household and the family of the working conditions in order to enhance its role in social identity and its Meaning.
FAMILY AND SOCIAL INEQUALITY
Choosing a marriage partner, freed from the payment of the parental family, although "individualized" and "personalized", but in no way did not become independent from the influence of society, it does not stop its impact on society.And in the "post-industrial" society, the family is the primary agent of formation of social strata.Marriage and birth create valid for decades, the social structure: they place the individual at a certain social position in society.The choice of marriage partners should be social laws to the extent that they are the sum of all marriages generate a relatively stable status in the structure of society.Intention to enter into marriage is preceded by at least the majority of people in the European industrialized countries, the long process of orientation and "socio-cultural settings" man on marriage and the family.In this sense, the family plays people initially tuned out to found a new family (with the number of people who did not grow up in traditional families, arising thus "self-evidence" of marriage and family in the well-known trend weakened choice between alternatives).
Presumably, the choice of partners occurs as the filtering process.First the category of socially appropriate partners.This is almost "unnoticed" for a person in a social environment in which he moves.Then there is a specific choice of the "totality" of possible partners in accordance with the psychological, sexual, erotic and aesthetic mechanisms.In this aspect, the choice of partner is not a single act of decision-making, as well as his participation in social processes.As far as we know, at the same time we attached great importance to the impression he carried out his own family, education and early professional career of adolescents and young adults.Empirical studies, for example, showed that school failure and early withdrawal from school, as well as professional experience of a disappointing first year of employment, stimulated the tendency to early and often not deliberate marriages.Over a long and successful completion of school education, by contrast, contributes more to a more diverse needs and expectations in later life, it seems, should lead to a more solid relationship when choosing a marriage partner.But awareness of the problem, the level of which enhance education and public discussion, and contribute to the fact that it is young people whose entry into the labor market pulls back a longer education, often question the monogamous marriages and legitimate.
quality of relationships in the family, not least to a large extent determined by the size and the nature in its possession of the apartment.Lack of premises, test the lower layers, increases in comparison with the families of the middle and upper strata of the potential of intra-stress, conflict and aggression.Uprated in most European industrialized countries in the 60-70-ies.social housing construction could not neutralize the effects of inequality of life chances, which is generated by the laws of the capitalist housing market.Studies have shown that the lack of availability of residential premises in Germany increased in parallel rise in the number of children per family and reduced family income.In 1973, only 33% of the families of unskilled workers, and at the same time 55% of the families of ordinary officials and 76% of families of persons not engaged in paid employment, the name for each child a separate room.Since the mid 60-ies.