Acute intestinal diseases
Young children are very susceptible to acute intestinal diseases, which can be both infectious and non-infectious nature.The first are caused by different pathogens and are transmitted from the patient or contagion- carrier.Intestinal infectious nature of the disease and is mainly associated with a variety of errors in the child's diet, leading to indigestion.
Acute digestive disorders are often observed in children under 6 months of life.They develop an incorrect, messy feeding, when not met the intervals between meals, the introduction of the child to the age of inappropriate food, while the introduction of several types of foods.That's why they are called dyspepsia, t. E. Indigestion.
Breastfeeding dyspepsia are much less common than in mixed and artificial.
addition, dyspepsia may be in violation of hygienic regimen, improper care of the child, as well as non-observance of water regime (for example, when there is insufficient liquid is introduced in the hot).
At the beginning of the disease appea
However, gross violations of power, failure to eliminate the causes of the disease, a child may develop toxic dyspepsia.Appears uncontrollable vomiting, very frequent loose, watery stools, baby body is dehydrated, the body weight drops sharply.In these cases, treatment should be carried out only in a hospital.
Prevention of dyspepsia is in strict compliance with the rules of care and feeding, careful and gradual introduction of new types of food, exclusion of force-feeding.At the same time special attention should be given children in early mixed or artificial feeding, premature, suffering from malnutrition, rickets.
In older children with eating disorders regime may develop inflammation of the gastric mucosa (acute gastritis) or simultaneously with it, and inflammation of the intestinal mucosa (acute gastroenteritis).The most common cause of these diseases is eating too much, especially in the use of large amounts of sweets, rough foods rich in fiber, fruit and unripe berries.Disease begins acutely, the body temperature rises (sometimes up to 39-40 ° C), there are nausea, weakness, abdominal pain, vomiting.The appetite is sharply reduced, upset his chair.In young children, it may be accompanied by convulsions, transient loss of consciousness.
correct feeding regime, the use of a variety of quality products, compliance with the rules of cooking, strict implementation of hygiene and sanitation requirements, as well as the personal care of children - these are the means of prevention of acute gastritis and gastroenteritis.
most common diseases of the digestive organs of infectious origin in early childhood are dysentery, salmonellosis, viral hepatitis (Botkin's disease).Transmission of infectious onset occurs through a variety of items contaminated with feces or patient contagion- carrier, as well as through food and water.
Pathogens intestinal infections are mostly very stable and long-term stored in the external environment, tolerate low temperatures.
susceptibility of children to intestinal infections is high, especially at an early age.In the summer-autumn period marked the greatest rise in the incidence of acute intestinal infections, due to the abundance of fruits and vegetables, more frequent violations of the water regime, the creation of favorable conditions for the reproduction of microorganisms, the presence of flies, which are also carriers of pathogens.
Dysentery (a disease of dirty hands) caused dysentery bacteria, which can be preserved alive for weeks or even months.Thus, the contaminated dysentery bacillus pots, utensils, wet clothes, the soil, they remain viable for 3 months, in food products (milk, meat, bread) - a few days in the water - up to 5-6 days.
disease appears cramping abdominal pain and loose stools (up to 20-30 times a day) with mucus and blood veins, increased body temperature (sometimes up to 40 ° C).There may be a common phenomenon expressed intoxication: weakness, fatigue, headache, loss of appetite, vomiting, and possible loss of consciousness.Dysentery is especially dangerous for children under 2 years of age, debilitated, suffering from rickets.They are more pronounced general intoxication, severe disturbance of all kinds of exchanges, especially water-salt and protein, often develops toxemia, often observed complications (pneumonia, otitis media).
However, in children, including the children of the first year of life, dysentery may occur were obliterated, t. E. Marked a short-term disturbance of bowel function, slight abdominal pain.In this form of the disease, children usually do not cause anxiety in parents.However, due to lack of proper and timely treatment of the disease can take a prolonged and become chronic.In addition, there is often a long bacteriocarrier.Therefore, even if the minor disorders of the gastrointestinal tract of the child should definitely see a doctor.Never self-treatment should be carried out, as a child can a long time to be a source of infection.It is due to such hidden sources supported by a continuous process of infection.
Prevention of dysentery in the first place is the strict observance of sanitary-hygienic and anti-epidemic rules and the timely and complete treatment of patients.
Salmonellosis is caused by microbes - Salmonella.Salmonellosis is widespread among animals and birds, in which pathogens are found not only in the organs and muscles, but also in eggs.Besides animals, the source of infection may be sick people and bacillicarriers.
salmonellosis patients are dangerous to others on the first day of the disease, since the release of the pathogen is possible not only in the feces, and urine, vomit, saliva, sputum.Germs are transmitted through food, where they can be caught by using contaminated water, crockery, cutlery, kitchen utensils.Vector control can be a fly.After falling rapidly multiply in the product or the finished dish, salmonella (at room temperature for a few hours).
symptoms appear after 8-36 hours after ingestion of contaminated food.Onset rapid: dramatically increased body temperature (40 ° C), there are chills, headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain.The chair at the sick child frequent, liquid, offensive, contain mucus.In severe cases the joins dehydration, convulsions may occur.
vozniknovanie To prevent the disease, children are advised not to give dishes such as jellies, pastes, creams, pasta nautically, empanadas, headcheese, if they are stored for more than 12 hours, even in cold conditions.Babies should not be given yogurt-Samokvasov and cooked out of it cottage cheese, eggs and waterfowl, which often contain salmonella.Never use canned food stored in public banks or in banks, had swelling (bombazh).
To prevent salmonellosis is very important proper cooking of foods.Thus, the meat should be cooked for at least 2 hours. It is particularly important well boil thoroughly and roast thoroughly ducks and geese, often infected with salmonella.Storing perishable products need only at fairly low temperature (not higher than 4 ° C) and for a certain period (meat, poultry, fish - up to 48 h, milk, cottage cheese - up to 36 hours, products infant kitchens - up to 24 h).
Viral hepatitis (Botkin's disease) is caused by a filterable virus is very resistant to environmental factors (when heated to 60 ° C, it killed only after 30 minutes of exposure, tolerates drying, long preserved in the serum).
source of infection is a sick person, which becomes dangerous by the end of the latent period of the disease, but especially contagious during the first 2 weeks of onset.The virus is excreted in the feces, urine.Infection can be transmitted through blood and by improper handling of needles and syringes, but primarily transmitted from food or water.The transmission of infection also participate flies that carry the virus on their feet.
latent period in viral hepatitis varies from 2 weeks to 1.5 months (disease serum hepatitis may occur in 4 or even 6 months after infection).
atypical disease begins: the child becomes moody, irritable, he loses appetite, disturbed sleep, there are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, pain in the liver, sometimes a cough and runny nose.Therefore, it is difficult to recognize before the onset of clinical symptoms.Later, there is a characteristic urine color, resembling beer, cal gets the color gray clay, skin and mucous membranes are stained yellow, patients complain of pain in the liver and skin itching.Jaundice is held from 1 to 3 weeks.
in infants and young children the disease is more severe and can go to a toxic liver dystrophy.
The prevention of infectious hepatitis, along with obschegigienicheskih and control measures is very important exception of the child to communicate not only with sick children, but also with the children that were in contact with the ill with hepatitis.All sick children should be hospitalized in the infectious department, and have been in contact with patients to be quarantined for 50 days.During the quarantine is necessary to contact all children carefully examine, in order not to miss the atypical (anicteric) form of the disease.All children in contact with the patient, administered gamma globulin.In the room where the patient before admission, conduct a thorough disinfection.