In recent years, the incidence of the structure of young children have been significant changes.Instead of acute respiratory infections (chicken pox, scarlet fever, diphtheria, measles, etc.) The greatest specific weight now have acute respiratory viral infections (ARI).In still a fairly high level is the incidence of acute intestinal diseases.And noted a slight increase in the number of cases of infective hepatitis.
first and main measure to prevent any infectious disease is strict adherence to sanitary-hygienic and anti-epidemic requirements, a complex of recreational activities (treatment, nutrition, physical education, hardening).
to own anti-epidemic measures are: early identification of affected children and their timely isolation and accounting, supervision of children coming into contact with infectious patients, carrying out disinfection measures, monitoring of compliance with the terms of quarantine.One of the most effective ways to prevent a number of infectious diseases - preventive inocula
before each vaccination the child carefully examined by a doctor, it is required to measure body temperature.Vaccinations are carried out by specially trained medical personnel.Not allowed to carry out vaccinations at home.Not later than 24 hours after the vaccination health worker examines a child in determining the responses to the vaccine (general or local).Most often observed reaction to the introduction of the complex vaccine against whooping cough, diphtheria and tetanus.Local reaction expressed in reddening and small diameter seal 0.5-2 cm at the site of administration of the vaccine, which disappears within 2-5 days.In rare cases, at this point it formed a knot, absorbable within 20-30 days.Signs of general reactions (malaise, fever), marks rarely disappear within 1-2 days.
Contraindications to preventive vaccinations, are usually temporary.Children who have been vaccinated against a disease, can be vaccinated against the other not earlier than in two months.An exception is the vaccination against polio, which can be carried out simultaneously or within a short period with another vaccine.After suffering an acute disease vaccination postponed for one month from the date of recovery.Newly admitted to the children's preschool immunizations can be done only at the end of the adaptation period, after at least 1 month.
children not vaccinated in a timely manner due to temporary contraindications, vaccination is carried out under the individual scheme as recommended by experts.The issue of preventive vaccinations a child with disabilities in health should be decided by the Commission, which includes a pediatrician, other doctors and immunologist at the district (city) clinics.The following are the steps statyah0 now calendar of preventive vaccinations.
great importance for the prevention of infectious diseases is to avoid contact with sick children and children exposed to infectious patients.Most of the so-called children's infections transmitted from sick to healthy airborne.The causative agents of these diseases thrive in the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, causing in them inflammatory changes.Sick child when coughing or sneezing sprays droplets of saliva and mucus containing pathogens that air or objects transmitted healthy.While some pathogens, once in the environment, die quickly, others are more resistant.
So, pertussis bacillus transmitted only by direct contact with a sick child healthy.In the external environment, it dies quickly, especially under the influence of sunlight and disinfectants.Another less resistant measles virus which are killed by the action of not only sunlight but also fresh air.Infection occurs through direct contact with the patient.
Varicella zoster virus also maloustoychiv.Outside the human body, it is stored only 10-15 minutes, but has a high volatility and the air flow can spread over long distances (in the next room, on the floor).
causative agent of mumps (mumps) becomes active when exposed to ultraviolet rays, heat, disinfectants.It is transmitted via droplets, as well as through the toys, utensils and other items, which were sick child saliva droplets.
Rubella virus is quite stable in the environment.The sources of the disease are patients and virus carriers.
causative agent of scarlet fever is transmitted from sick to healthy airborne droplets and through the clothes, toys, books used by the sick child.The transmission of infection, and through a third party.
diphtheritic rod is transmitted by airborne droplets through direct contact with the patient, as well as through the objects used by the patient, and through a third party.It is not excluded transmission of infection through food.In addition, children can recover from diphtheria long remain bacilli carrier and be a source of infection.
If a child is in contact with infectious patients, it is necessary to establish for careful monitoring to quickly identify the first signs of the disease and start appropriate treatment.Watch a child should be for the entire incubation period (ie. E. The time from the moment of contact with the patient until the first signs of the disease).
each infection characterized by a certain incubation period.So, if in contact with a sick child with scarlet fever may develop within a day, after the communication with the patient mumps before the first signs of the disease takes place at least 11 days.
Know term incubation period for different infections is necessary also to protect the child from communicating with the children who come into contact with infectious patients, since these children can be contagious even before obvious signs of disease.
presents data on the duration of the incubation period of some infectious diseases:
Whooping cough - from 2 to 14 days
Chickenpox - from 10 to 21 days
Mumps - from 11 to 23 days
Rubella - from 11 to 24 days
Scarlet fever - from 1 to 12 days
Diphtheria - from 2 to 10 days
Measles - from 9 to 21 days
Polio - from 5 to 35 days
Dysentery - from 1 to 7 days
colibacillosis- from 2 to 10 days
Salmonellosis - from 6-8 hours to 3 days
Meningococcal infection - from 3 to 20 days
infective hepatitis: hepatitis A - 15 to 45 days
hepatitis B - 30 to 180days
should be said about this method of prevention of infectious diseases, such as the introduction of gamma globulin in the event of contact with the patient, which creates in the body of passive immunity, which lasts for a month.Repeated contact with the patient after 30 days of administration of gamma globulin is repeated.
happens that when administered gamma globulin child gets sick, but the disease at the same time flows in a lighter form.Therefore, young children, immunocompromised should recommend this method of prevention.