Types of power structures in the family

Most family systems, in which extended families are the norm (eg, peasant families in Ireland), are patriarchal.This term refers to the power of men over other family members.This type of power is generally accepted and often institutionalized in Thailand, Japan, Germany, Iran, Brazil and many other countries.In the matriarchal family system power rightfully belongs to his wife and mother.Such systems are rare.Even the inhabitants of the Trobriand Islands, where the legacy passed down the female line, the wife does not have authority over their husbands.In many families, in patriarchal societies, a woman gets an informal power, but it is not the norm.

In recent years there has been a transition from patriarchal to egalitarian family system.This is mainly due to the increase in the number of working women in many industrialized countries.Under this system, influence and power are distributed between the husband and wife in almost equal measure.

Preferred Partner

rules governing marriages outside of ce

rtain groups (such as families or clans), are the rules of exogamy.Along with them there are rules of endogamy, prescriptive marriage within certain groups.Endogamy was characteristic of the caste system prevailing in India.The most well-known rule of endogamy is the prohibition of incest (incest), excluding marriage or sexual relations between persons who are considered to be close blood relatives.In almost all societies, this rule applies to the relationship between parent and child, and siblings.In many societies, it applies even to cousins ​​and other close relatives.The prohibition of incest is not universal in spite of the high prevalence.Marriages between brothers and sisters encouraged in the family of the pharaohs in ancient Egypt.

Why incest ban is so widely distributed?This question is the subject of heated debate.Some researchers have suggested that people tend aversion to incest.Others believe that people have long been aware of the risk of genetic effects of incest.Others stressed that the rules prohibiting sexual relations between family members who are not spouses, reduces the likelihood of jealousy and conflict.However, this argument loses credibility when you consider that many people are able to share a sexual partner with someone else without any jealousy.And polygyny, which often gives rise to competition among women, persists despite the conflicts.In addition, it was stressed that the prohibition of incest, forced to look for a life partner outside the groups to which people belong.However, none of these views has advantages over the other, and discussion of these issues will certainly be continued (Ste-fence, 1967).

exist within racial groups (eg, African Americans) In Western countries, endogamy to a limited extent, religious groups (ie, Jews) and social classes (people with aristocratic origins in England).In some pre-industrial societies are prohibited marriages with members of the other tribe.Tribal endogamy creates stability within the tribe, because it does not lose its members and not replenished alien people.But at the same time it can contribute to the suspicion and hostility towards "outsiders" whose customs and habits of strangers.In some societies, rules of endogamy and exogamy, probably, to a large extent limited opportunities for young people.As already mentioned, the inhabitants of the Trobriand Islands the man should marry the daughter of his father's sister.This means that the potential of his choice is limited to only one or two women.Such a system greatly limits the number of potential partners and for both men and women.

choose their residence rights in society, there are different rules for choosing the newlyweds residence.In the US, most of them prefer neolokalnoe residence - which means that they live separately from their parents.In societies where the norm is patrilocal residence, the bride leaves her family and her husband's family lives in or near the home of his parents.As we already mentioned, according to the custom of the Irish peasants, young wife enters the family of her husband and is under the authority of her mother in law.In societies where the norm is matrilocal residence, the couple should live with the bride's parents or in their vicinity.

Neolokalnoe residence, is considered the norm in the West, rare in the rest of the world.Only 17 of the 250 companies studied by Murdock (1949), the couple moved to a new residence.Patrilocal residence found widespread in societies where there polygyny, slavery, and war often occur;members of these societies are usually engaged in hunting and collecting plants.Matrilocal residence was considered the norm in societies where women enjoy the right to land ownership.Neolokalnoe residence associated with monogamy, the trend towards individualism and equal economic status of men and women.

Pedigree and inheritance

If a person was able to count all the people with whom he is related by blood (including the ancestors and the most distant relatives), this list would be huge.The rules for determining ancestry shorten this list and indicate which family members play an important role in your life.There are three types of systems determine the pedigree and ownership succession.The most common is the pedigree of the male line.It is believed in the rural areas of Ireland, the basic family ties exist between the father, son and grandson.Although the wife in some way keeps in touch with her relatives and her child in some way inherits its genes, the children become members of the husband's family.

In some cases, such as among the inhabitants of the Trobriand Islands, the relationship is determined by the female line.It is a system for determining the ancestry of his wife line.As is customary in the Trobriand Islands, the couple live in the village of the husband, but the property and daily assistance comes on line wives.The property becomes the property of the mother's daughter, and substantive support to the young family has a brother of his wife.The way of family life in the Trobriand Islands is based on kinship in the male and female line.

In our society, the family found the spread of a system based on bilateral pedigree.It is common in 40 percent of the world's cultures.In such systems, in determining the relationship are equally taken into account blood relatives from his father and mother.However, such a system can cause problems.Numerous duties with respect to many family members, for example, the need to visit them, to give them presents on special occasions and to borrow money, can become burdensome.Of course, it is quite satisfied with children who like to receive gifts from many uncles, aunts, and cousins.