Differences in family structure
Based on the distinctive features revealed by the Census Bureau, we can define a family as based on kinship, marriage, or adoption of bringing people of common life and mutual responsibility for the upbringing of children;family members often live in the same house.Even a preliminary overview of the evolution of the family trend in the United States shows that this definition covers the different way of family life.For example, a family with one parent usually the mother works outside the home, and the children perform household duties;in families with two parents - one of them often goes to work, while the other takes care of the children.
To better comprehend these differences, consider the three classic study of family life in other societies: in the rural areas of Ireland, on the Trobriand Islands in the South Pacific and in the collective farms in Israel.
peasant family in the West of Ireland
Erensburg and Kimball (1948) studied the life of the peasants of western Ireland.They described that the
On the basis of such agreements wife belonged to the family of her husband.Farm house and household items were passed from father to son.While my father was alive, he completely ruled cases the whole family.For example, when local authorized Land Affairs to distribute the work, she was entrusted to the older men, though in practice it will be their sons.On the day of the salary "old men" came to get the money earned by his sons.
Father directed, and other aspects of the life of his sons."Boys' 45 and 50 years of field dried or sold cattle at the fair under the guidance of his father, who took all the decisions.As one of the men complained, "while the old man was alive, I always remain a boy."But despite such complaints, the whole system of these relationships has been well worked out, "the boys" and "girls" successfully adapted to a peasant family requirements and cope with their responsibilities.From infancy to 7 years, all the children were under the constant supervision of his mother, who worked at home or in the field.They felt their support, care and love.After First Communion at the age of 6-7 years held a clear separation between boys and girls that affect their life experience.Boys started to work on a farm together with their fathers and older brothers.Girls stayed at home with their mothers or other older women - members of the family.They were taught to care for domestic animals, work in the garden and do other things around the house.Young girls and women to do this work under the supervision of elders.
clear division of labor by sex and age did not change the principles and after marriage.Fathers still believed his married sons, "boys", as married women are generally under the control of her mother in law.Marriage also involved the duties of the spouses in relation to other family members.In marriage, each of them took themselves to his or her spouse in relation to family members or distant relatives.According to the Irish custom of "friendliness", children were sent to help the relatives of harvest or hold a family celebration.Even the most distant relatives could count on shelter and food.While the "friendly" version of conventional traditions rewarded with praise, neglect of duty caused the condemnation and often punished."Near R. owner of a small farm did not process his garden;in-law was forced to send the hapless potato-law;eventually once enraged relatives of his wife at night to beat him in his own house. "
inhabitants of the Trobriand Islands
Sociologists often find that the behavior was despicable in one society may be considered common among carriers of a different culture.Irish farmers, which were discussed, would be shocked to learn that New Guinea spouse usually rely on specific support from the wife's relatives among the inhabitants of the Trobriand Islands.The Trobriand society man usually married the daughter of his father's sister.The newlyweds lived in the village of her husband, but maintained family ties mainly with the family of his wife.Each family received a half or more than half of financial assistance from his brother's wife.Father, to give the family of his sister, the bulk of its assets, know that it will get her daughter, who will marry his son.Thus, as explained by Malinowski (1929), his father's estate eventually passed to his own son.This custom is also ensured that the elderly father could count on the help of his wife and son.
Unlike Irish farmer all his life sovereignly led his sons, the husband in the Trobriand family did not supervise children.Their upbringing was engaged mainly uncle by the mother, he also had the right to request their help in many cases.However, fathers were involved in their children's lives.They took care of the babies - fed, bathed, went for a walk with them.Children are often tied to the fathers, although not feel them blood ties, but rather to understand that they are married to their mother.
Islanders deeply believed that her husband was not biologically related to his wife's children.According to their belief, pregnancy occurs only for one reason: the spirit of-kin of a married woman gives her body-spirit of a child.Kenkel (1971) explains this as follows: "The inhabitants of the Andean Trobri-islands come into contact with foreigners, and they know the" chattering missionaries "who claimed that conception is the result of sexual intercourse and the man plays an important role in procreation.They believe this "theory" completely meaningless and lead quite convincing, but not always logically reasoned arguments to prove its complete absurdity.For example, I mentioned several occasions when her husband was not at home for over a year, and when he returned, he found in the house of the newborn baby.Rather than blame the wives of treason, considered among the inhabitants of the islands a serious crime, husbands sincerely happy that the spirits of the gods, visited the house during their absence.One husband, who turned out in such a situation, thought it was strong evidence that sexual intercourse is absolutely not connected with the birth of children! »
family structure, common among residents of the Israeli collective farms (kibutts), differs substantially from the family structurecompanies that we talked about.Kibuttsizm is based on the belief that in order to achieve genuine socialism is necessary to abolish private property and related institutions, in particular nucleon-ary family.Thus, the creation kibutts is a social experiment, in which, among other things, an attempt to weaken the influence of the nuclear family.
Men and women work for the benefit kibuttsa and receives a housing, food, clothing, social services and assistance in raising their children.From birth, children sleep, eat and study in the so-called children's homes.Although weekends and holidays they meet with their parents, brothers and sisters, their upbringing has been kibutts.Take care of them teachers and teachers appointed kibuttsem.In addition, children are closely communicate with each other and provide each other emotional support."From early childhood, they learn to independently interact with each other, if adult supervision is insignificant or completely absent.If the child gets scared at night, or he gets sick, the care of other children - talk to him, give him a drink of water, and in the end the baby calms down ... Very soon the child ceases to wake up in the night, feeling safe with the other children ".
Although life in kibuttse perhaps not so perfect, but in the collective child becomes more emotional security than the nuclear family.In addition, kibuttse children and their parents are well equipped financially as kibutts fully satisfy their basic needs.Older members kibuttsa also provided.It encourages them to work activity in old age, at the same time they receive material and medical assistance during the period of illness and disability.
Since kibutts performs many functions of the family, marriage may seem unattractive.However, the adult members kibuttsa consider it an important factor in the device sex life.On this basis, regulated by sex, and, of course, as a result of marriage, children are born, which are highly appreciated by the residents kibuttsa.It is not surprising that usually at the age of twenty-odd years, they get married, have children soon and long live together.Divorce and infidelity are rare.Parents show affection to the children, that they meet the same.As Schlesinger notes (1972), in almost all kibuttse considered common, but personal relations between parents and children is very appreciated.
Although life in kibuttse may seem ideal, many are leaving from there, trying to find their place in the outside world.In the early stages kibuttsizma university education, and income from private business did not have such a power of attraction.To overcome this tendency, in kibuttsah began to create more convenience and
increasingly take into account the personal wishes of the people.For example, although the centralized education of children is still the norm, some groups putting pressure on parliament, made the implementation of measures to promote greater participation of parents in the upbringing of children.