Family Development Cycle
Recently, domestic and foreign psychology more and more attention is given to research family.We study a variety of its characteristics and processes occurring in it - the satisfaction of spouses in marriage and family roles, structure, distribution of power, parent-child relationship, etc. But in the concrete work is often referred to and rarely take into account sufficiently the family -.. Is a dynamic education,during the existence of which is allocated a qualitatively different periods.
This article is a review of studies on the development cycle family 2 and published in recent decades in the foreign scientific press.
Frequency of changes occurring in the family, depending on the length of the marriage, served as the basis for the introduction of the concept of family studies family development cycle.The term was first used in 1948 by E. R. Duvall and frail from the American to the national conference on family life, where they made a report on the dynamics of family interaction.When constructin
The main feature of differentiation stages, the proposed Duvall, used the presence or absence of children in the family and their ages, because it was thought that the main function of the family - is procreation and education of offspring.the steps of the family cycle were identified on the basis of the characteristics: I - the emerging family, the couple married less than five years, no children;II - childbearing family, the age of the older child up to 2 years 11 months;III - a family with children preschool children, the eldest child from 3 to 5 years, 11 months;IV - a family with children schoolchildren older child from 6 to 12 years, 11 months;V - a family with children adolescents, older by 13 years to 20 years, 11 months;VI - the family, "sending" children in life (stage lasts from the moment when the parent left the house first child, till the moment when the last family left the child);VII - the spouse of a mature age (since when a single child remained in the family until the end of the work, until retirement);VIII - aging family from the moment of leaving the couple retired to the death of one of them.
This periodization has some disadvantages: bulkiness, lack of attention to characteristics such as length of marriage, age of spouses, marriage cohort that served as the basis for its fair criticism and to create new versions of it.In subsequent years, a large number of different family periodization cycle -.. Psychological, sociological, demographic, etc. The basis for them were as different theoretical considerations and the results of empirical research and advisory practice.In our country most popular is the periodization EK Vasilyeva.It identifies five stages of the cycle: I - the emergence of the family, from the date of marriage to the birth of the first child;II - the birth and upbringing of children, this stage ends with the beginning of work at least one child;III - end performance somey educational function, it is the period from the beginning of the work of the first child up to the moment when in the care of the parents will not be any one of the children, IV - the children live with their parents and at least one of them has his own family;V - the couple live alone or with children who have their own families.This periodization is similar in principle Duvall graduation, although the author is trying to enter into it, and even features such as having a family in children, the beginning of work of the child, his living together with their parents.However, since the fate of each child develops is not clear - one leaves at a young age to another city and lives separately, and the other lives with his parents all his life, this gradation is allowable for the purposes of the study, conducted by EKVasilyeva (comparison of urban and rural households), but little is acceptable to the psychological study of the family, so how is that different families live a different number of steps.
in principle characteristics that can be taken into account in the allocation of family cycle stages of development, very much.Depending on the direction of research, national and demographic characteristics of the sample to select stages a variety of indicators can be used.But the use in various works different indicators leads to the stage boundaries change.This amorphous concept makes it quite vulnerable in empirical and theoretical terms.
long stage time, proposed by E. Duvall, were recognized, and in the majority of works devoted to the problem of family development cycle or take account of this parameter, used this periodization.But in recent years this approach in view of the above factors has been subjected to serious criticism, supported by empirical facts.Thus, in Gy.Spaniera, R. and R. Sayer Latselera has been shown that the use of the scheme E. Duvall leads to the fact that the stage is largely overlap each other, ie. E. At different stages of the cycle get spouses of the same age, length, material well-being, etc.. d.
number of empirical studies have demonstrated that the concept of the family cycle stage itself has a low predictive value.Thus, in the art.Nock to identify different personality characteristics and intra-individual at different stages of his life were used three types of dependent variables: the stage of the family cycle, the absence or the presence of children in the family, living with his parents at the time of the study, and the experience of marriage.The largest number of statistically significant relationships were obtained between the different personality, intra- and social characteristics and the fact that the absence or presence of children living with their parents.Several smaller, but also quite a large number of dependencies has been received between the experience of marriage and other characteristics.The smallest and least interesting number in meaningful terms of communication had been received between the stages of family cycle and other variables.In the already mentioned study by Spanierom, Sayer and Latselerom, based on US Census data and compared the predictive value of the empirical three variables: age of spouses, marriage, family experience and the stage of the cycle.It also turned out that the latter is the least significant in empirical terms compared with the other two.
The above and many other works served as the basis for a multi-dimensional concept "stage of development of the family" has been replaced by this simple enough, as the length of the marriage and the presence or absence of children in the family, living together with their parents.
But there are other ways of finding the variables that determine the periodization of the development of the family cycle.During the time of existence of the family is changing the nature of the activities of the spouses.Trying to see family life from this point of view has been carried out X. and M. Feldman, who proposed the concept of "family careers."By this they understand the totality of the individual's role, aimed at the implementation itself in some of the important areas of life, such as leisure, work, family.These two types of careers have been marked - and intra nonmarital.Among the first four types of careers were attributed, received the following names: Career sexual experience, marriage, career, parental career and career relationships of parents and adult children.They are characterized by the following features:
1) primarily for their implementation need to pair interaction, ie they involve both spouses;..2) unlike nonfamily careers - professional and leisure - especially the implementation of the individual is largely determined by the peculiarities of his family;3) in the implementation of each of the individual careers come into a close relationship with both the people who belong to him to one age cohort, and with people belonging to other age cohorts;4) Every career has its own characteristics, terms and development trends.Everyone can realize simultaneously all four careers, and not just one.
The introduction of this concept has allowed X. and M. Feldman to offer a new approach to the study of family development cycle, which is based on two research strategies: 1) Consideration of the family as the careers of independent and dependent variables;2) analysis of the mutual crossing the quarry, one interference situations in the course of another (eg, the impact on the marital relationship a baby, t. E. Intersection career conjugal and parental).Accordingly, the periodization should be primarily based on the change of the family quarry realized by the individual, or the emergence of new ones.
Thus, the problem of periodization and description of the family cycle is still far from being solved.Recent works have brought to replace the multi-valued concept of "stage" concepts such as length of marriage, age of spouses, the presence or absence of children in the family, "family careers", and so on. E., Which greatly simplified the procedure for empirical research.It should immediately be noted that, despite the fact that the development of this problem started abroad about 40 years ago, there are no models of family development cycle, adequately covering the changes, though, studies show that the importance of this subject and the practical and theoreticalsense, no doubt.To explain this situation, you can select a number of reasons: 1) difficulties in carrying out and the organization of family cycle research;2) the diversity of the changes;3) the difficulties associated with the release of themselves cycle stages;4) the complexity of interpreting the data, as most research is done slice method, while more than adequate for the study of family development cycle would be a longityudinalny research method (otherwise it is impossible to get rid of problems such as the comparison of the respondents belonging to different marriage cohorts, failure to consider the impact of differentsocial factors affecting the respondents of different generations, etc.)..;5) problems with finding respondents who are in the last stages of family development cycle, since each stage the number of families due to divorce and mortality decreases, and finally, 6) the theoretical challenges facing the modern psychology of the family.
Perhaps that is associated with these factors and the fact that psychological studies of family development in our country is practically non-existent.In connection with this in the future, appealing to specific works, we will have to rely on foreign authors.
Unfortunately, today it is difficult to provide a complete description of the changes occurring in the family development cycle, the data is too fragmented, relate various sides of family life, often contradictory or are not comparable, as obtained by different methods and different schemes of periodization cycle.But it is obvious that they are multifaceted.Here are at least a few examples.
In the D. Orsnera devoted to changes in the style of holiday spouses during marital cycle were identified three possible types of spending free time: a joint vacation, when both spouses are engaged in the same, together;Parallel rest when both spouses are engaged in the same, but in isolation from each other;and individual holidays, when everyone does their own thing.The author then tried to determine the relationship between the nature of leisure and marital satisfaction in married couples with different experience of living together.joint leisure fact was associated with marital satisfaction at the experience of marriage from 0 to 5 years mainly in men and at the experience of marriage from 18 to 23 years, mainly in women.For
par with the experience of marriage it appeared as a characteristic slight increase in parallel spent spare time, while in pairs with the experience of living together from 5 to 18 years of both spouses, although in general, men slightly more than women, prefer to relax individually.
aim of the study John. Mödling and M. MakKeri was to determine the relationship between marriage satisfaction and similarity values among spouses with different experience of living together.They have been allocated three groups of respondents: I - the couple with the experience of marriage from 1 to 12 years;II - 13 to 25 and III - 26- 50 years.Their findings suggest that the similarity values for test Rokeach positively associated with satisfaction with the marriage only in Group III of the respondents.
Tamir L. and K. Antonutstsi attempt was made to see how the changed perception of themselves, motivation and social relationships have a different number of years people are married.Analysis of the data suggests that the most confident and the ability to control their own life parents of adult children.The most controversial group in terms of perception of themselves were children of parents of teenagers.In the study of motivation it revealed that in the group of parents of adult children of men is largely development needs affiliatsin, and women - the need for achievement.It was also found that the smaller length of marriage is associated with a large number of social ties, but at the same time, unlike the respondents with a great experience, with lower satisfaction with them.
Similar examples could go on, but it is doubtful whether such research will be able to recreate the mosaic complete picture of the changes taking place in the family cycle.Suffice it to say that to date, there is evidence of changes occurring in interpersonal perception of spouses, in their communication with each other, in the distribution of roles, especially sexual relations, and so on. D. However, despite the overall data fragmentation, there are a number of problems,which "lucky" more.And above all it is - a change in marriage satisfaction.
interest of scientists to this problem is huge.Lewis and Spanier in marriage satisfaction research survey in a decade is this topic singled out as one of the most studied.two research groups who hold different points of view about the nature of marriage satisfaction changes with increasing time of marriage of the spouses can be identified.Both groups agree that some time after the marriage, and more often after the birth of their first child marital satisfaction both spouses begins to decrease, the main differences are related to the question of what happens in the future with her.
Several earlier studies family issues, conducted by R. Blood, D. Wolfe, B. Paris, E. Lucky indicates that with increasing time of marriage satisfaction with their spouses more falls.But there is another point of view, based on a number of later works executed by authors such as X. Feldman, Gy.Spanier, K. Cannon, B. Rollins.Data from these, are the basis for the allegation that the relationship of satisfaction with marriage on the length of the marriage is U-shaped in nature, ie. E. A decrease in the value of satisfaction gradually stops in the middle stages of family cycle, and then, the couple experienced 18-20 years or more, even some recovery is observed.However, in one of the largest studies on this problem conducted by Gy.Spanierom, R. Lewis, C. Kohl on three different samples (three US state), received contradictory information: results of a survey of one of them testify in favor of the U-shaped nature of the dependence, the other survey - in favor of a permanent fall in marriage satisfaction, the data obtainedin the third, do not give grounds for unambiguous interpretation.Based on the results of these authors were subjected to severe criticism and other works data, insisting that the increase in marriage satisfaction in the later stages of family development cycle can be just an artifact of the study, ie. E. Can be caused by any other factors, and notsatisfaction changes.
On the other hand, as evidenced by some mathematical computations itself U-shaped relationship is quite complex, and the various technical problems associated with the rating for received specific empirical research may lead to the fact that the U-imagery will be smoothed inrectilinear favor.dependence.
Trying to approach this problem from a somewhat different angle was made by R. and B. Guilford Bengston.