Socio-cultural functions of the family
The inherent high degree of psychological family solidarity ensures the successful execution of its task the socialization of children and parents, which is the main content of the functioning of the socio-cultural family.Socialization includes training task, but not limited thereto.It also covers a variety of activities for the formation of personality: the assimilation of its norms and values of a culture, behavior and communication skills training to perform important social roles.Thus, by analogy with the formation of the basic psychological needs of the individual, the family and lays the basic cultural values that govern the future of human behavior in different spheres of activity, forms the scenario of all possible roles that a person will play.
Socialization through generations of interaction that make up the family.Depending on the type of family changes due to historical peculiarities of a particular culture and society, changing the type and mechanism of this interaction.In the modern nu
organized traditional family so as to preserve a way of life of the older generation, to repeat their parents in children.Children here - socialization entity whose mission is to "fit" them in a clearly defined framework of existing roles, norms and values.The mechanism of socialization in the traditional type of family functions, based on the absolute authority of the older generation, custom, ritual.Clearly delineates the norm, based on tradition, and deviation from the norm, implying severe sanctions.
main feature of socialization in the home of a new type (egalitarian, democratic) is that each of its members seeking opportunities for self-realization.Thus, not "close" the authority of a senior world, claiming the sample, which is to follow, and opens up the possibility of free development.The senior and junior communication skills are developed a critical attitude to the conflicting and competing norms and values, the foundations for the formation of self-reliance, responsibility, conscious attitude to his actions.
In actual practice, the socialization of these types of "mixed", one can only talk about the preferential tendency toward one or the other pole.At the same time the mechanisms of socialization, characteristic for different stages of the historical evolution of the family, not only co-exist in modern families, but also "turned on" as you progress through a single family the basic stages of its life cycle.At the beginning of it - if we take the basis of periodization age - are mainly traditional mechanisms of socialization and the unconditional parental authority is a prerequisite for mastering the basic values of a given culture.In the future, the process of "liberalization" of the traditional family: socializing effects are translated not only from parents to children, but also from children to parents.
At the same time increases the degree of autonomy of family members, increasing the diversity of their relations with the world.Includes a mechanism other types of socialization, "children and adults learn from their peers and adults learn also from their children" (Margaret Mead).This period included in the process of socialization, along with family and teenage youth subcultures, the growing influence of other socializing institutions, the emergence of competitive situations, ways of life (on the one hand, the family, on the other - peer or reference group).There have problems and conflicts, the severity of which depends on whether the nature of communication accepted in the family.It depends on the type family, type of social interaction in her organization type relationship.
traditional family will continue to require submission, obedience, and this can lead to conflict and rupture."Democratic" family will strive for mutual understanding, dialogue, based on which, a new, more mature, although more complex style of relations between parents and children.It was during this period (the transition for families and coincides with the adolescent children) solved one of the most important socio-cultural activities in family tasks: laying the foundations of communication style, style of interpersonal relations, which will follow the people.It is necessary to emphasize the inseparable link socio-psychological and socio-cultural functions of the family as a successful social and cultural activities on the formation of social skills is based on the full social and psychological family functioning.
This does not mean that socialization in a traditional family necessarily fraught with conflict and mechanisms of socialization in the "democratic" family only assume consent and harmony.Rather, as in the traditional family the emphasis in education is on obedience, parental authority is often "triggered" in a tense situation, thereby avoiding open conflict.But if such a conflict does occur, then by virtue of the marked features of socialization in the traditional family it becomes a riot, is fraught with rupture of relations.The "democratic" as family conflict - not a form of break-up, and the search for solutions to the crisis.The conclusion is not that the "democratic" conflict-free family, and that it is more than the traditional, can form the basis of the person in the culture of conflict resolution, culture of communication, which involves flexibility, openness, ability to engage in dialogue and listen to the interlocutor.In addition to general education, information, labor, cultural skills, which is fully capable to bring up the traditional family, these qualities are the most important socio-cultural characteristics of the person providing the possibility of its success in modern society.
tasks of socialization are, as is well known, not only to his family, on the front and other social institutions (pre-schools, schools, public organizations, mass media, etc.).Thus, the first challenge faced by social policy in this area is how to ensure that the interaction of these institutions.If the question is to focus, it will sound like this: one of the agents of socialization must perform a major role in the formation of the person - the family or the institutions of public education?From one or another answer to this question depends, ultimately, the cultural policy of the state in relation to the family, which is expressed, firstly, in the formation of a certain ideology of the family, and secondly, in a system of specific activities.
These measures should be aimed at both the development of the public education system and to create optimal conditions for the implementation of the family of her psychological and cultural functions.But the ratio of the two areas may differ.This is because the family can take with respect to the public at least three different positions, each of which will have its own "output socializing."
family may be the most "fit" in a society whose norms and values and implied right granted.Then they are not recognized, critically comprehend and more or less successfully absorbed in the process of family socialization.The family is not in conflict with other socializing institutions.
In case the norms and values of the family at odds with the values and normative samples taken in a society, the result of socialization can be a conscious rejection of the dominant ideology, active opposition in the form of dissent or revolutionary activities or the development of a critical attitude towards reality, which finds expression inreform or educational activities.In both cases we are talking about families who have a fairly high level of culture and 'strong' educational potential.
Finally, the family can not do their socializing, socio-cultural function by virtue of the very low cultural level or violation of some vital intrafamily relationships.Basics of trouble may be different: financial insecurity, alcoholism, drug addiction, crime, alienation, "dislike", etc.
transitional society in which we live, characterized by the fact that it is numerically increasing number of second and third types of families, the real challenge for family policies are primarily families who do not fulfill their socio-cultural functions, ieThe third type family.They are most in need of special assistance - financial, legal, social, psychological and medical.
describe the situation must be taken into account when addressing the issue of family relations with the institutions of socialization-family.For many years in our country is recognized as an absolute priority of public education.This was especially true for the first post-revolutionary years, when there was a process of destruction of the old forms of family organization.Ideology, formed in those years, was, in fact, anti-family - denies the family property, inheritance, life, stability of relationships.
Since the mid 30s, and especially since the end of World War II, there have been legislative and other measures aimed at strengthening the family.But at the same time stressed that the Soviet family is based on a completely new principle, a new morality professes, has a completely different nature than the family in any other society.One of the features of this new family ideology, lived up to the present day, was still recognized the unconditional priority of-family upbringing children.
Now all unanimous on the need to strengthen the family, but very understanding of what a strong family, happy family, does not remain unchanged.It reflects the evolution of the objective tendencies of the family, socio-economic features of society and especially the family ideology.In one case, the family is strengthening of complexity and even an actual ban on divorce, intolerance to new, non-traditional forms of organization of family life, the prohibition of abortion.In another - is to provide maximum opportunities to choose the family lifestyle, ensuring real equality, empowering women to work, to acquire professional qualifications, etc.
That one or the other extreme positions, which find expression in the official ideology of the family and family law, prevailed in different periods of Soviet history.In addition, a new family ideology is spreading in the country, which had a profound and save patriarchal traditions.This tradition has been steadily destroyed - disappeared the objective socio-economic basis of their existence, but also the new "democratic" tradition only proclaimed as the socio-economic basis of their existence, too, was destroyed - and more "successful" than the roots of patriarchal attitudes.This is due to the fact that the tradition of "democratic" family (for example, among the urban intelligentsia) were developed on the basis of a certain level of culture and well-known material well-being that was unattainable for the majority of families in the 20-40-ies.Furthermore, the democratic tradition of the family were destroyed, as families were exterminated - their carriers.Now elements of various views on the family, learned different generations of people, coexist, voiced by the media, "superimposed" on spontaneously emerging family ideology, which is always present in society.Its source is the socio-historical, national and religious traditions, subcultural features.This spontaneous folding family ideology reflects the contradictory reality of the modern Soviet family life, in which, as shown by numerous ethnographic, sociological and psychological studies, are deeply rooted patriarchal elements.This family in the performance of their socializing functions meets with fundamental difficulties.They stem from the inevitable conflict between the cultural patterns that are objectively capable family oriented sotsializiruemyh its people, and the demands made to modern human life.If the human family are brought up in the spirit of unquestioning obedience, and he has to live in a world where it is constantly necessary to make decisions based on the internal responsibility, it can become a criminal pegko.This means that the family is unable to fulfill their socializing functions, with what is now often enough faces our society.