Family - a small group that met with the greatest naturalness many important personal needs of the person.Here he gets the necessary social skills, mastering the basic behavioral patterns and cultural norms, realizes his emotional preferences, receives psychological support and protection, escapes from the stress and congestion arising from contact with the outside world.The satisfaction of these needs is the essence of psychological and socio-cultural (socializing) family of functions.
regrouping of family functions in the course of its modernization increases the value of these two groups of functions, which causes drastic changes in the way of life of families and their needs, the nature of the interaction with the outside world, the type of family relations, the situation in the family of its individual members, family morals, etc..d.and ultimately lead to fundamental changes in the system of cooperation throughout the chain personality-family-society.Accordingly, the change themselves psychological
When it comes to the psychological aspects of family functioning, it appears not so much as an institution, but as a small group with the characteristic features of the formation of group interaction.Therefore, based on the psychological functioning of the family are only those individual needs, the satisfaction of which it is impossible or extremely difficult outside the family.
In many foreign works of psychological functions of the family are referred to as "psychotherapy functions."Family can simultaneously provide its members with a sense of security ( "Shelter"), belonging to a group, the emotional connection, the possibility of self-assertion, ie,ultimately create a base for the development of a higher type of needs (Maslow) for self-actualization and self-fulfillment.
Psychological functions family made through interpersonal relationships.In the process of transition to a new historical type of family in interpersonal relationships, and hence significant changes in the social and psychological family functioning.(In the domestic material, this process has been studied in SI work Hunger
traditional family model promoted mainly the satisfaction of primary psychological needs:.. Safe, toiletries, emotional ties, and partly (mostly for women) in the self-affirmation and only marginally ablehelp meet the needs of self-actualization. Thus, the absolute prerogative of a family were "inferior" psychological needs, is most closely related to its economic functioning.
with increasing human individualization and "introduction" to the modern family the principle of individual autonomy as a prerequisite for development and to meethigher psychological needs, as well as in connection with the parallel-reaching social processes that weaken the external norms of family interaction, satisfaction of all kinds of basic psychological needs of the individual, including the "higher", more complicated, posing a threat of destabilization of the family.As a result, increased requirements for the fulfillment of its social and psychological family functions as a whole and at different stages of its life cycle.
in modern social and psychological family research singled out three main components of interpersonal relationships, providing psychological solidarity: intimacy (closeness), cooperation (mutual) and cognitive agreement (mutual understanding).Different elements have different psychological solidarity "specific weight" on this or that stage of the family life cycle.Thus, in the premarital period and before the birth of their first child has the greatest value intimacy.After the birth of first child, a crucial role is played by the degree and nature of co-operation: this can partly explain the seen in "traditionalization" studies of family life in this phase (the husband at the time of becoming the main breadwinner, and undergoes the appropriate changes the whole nature of family interactions).In the future, constantly increasing contribution to the solidarity of cognitive psychological consent.In general, a high degree of psychological solidarity can be considered as the main condition for ensuring the satisfaction of the three "lower" groups of basic personal needs, and in combination with a certain autonomy of family members - and "higher" groups of needs (self-esteem, self-fulfillment and self-actualization).
comparing this angle "patriarchal" and "democratic" ( "egalitarian") family of models leads to the assumption that the first is not inferior to the second degree of psychological comfort for the individual.For traditional marriage characterized by a high degree of cooperation (through role complementarity), cognitive consent (from the next set of common social norms) and low demand for autonomy.Insufficient degree of intimacy in the families of this type does not lead to the destruction of solidarity in general.
for "egalitarian" marriage in a blurring of social and normative canon and the emergence of new requirements regarding autonomy as a condition of development of the individual "load" on all the elements of psychological solidarity is very high.Not by chance, some studies show that satisfaction with family life and marriage is highest in the purely traditional families, and then - in the most egalitarian and low in between.The same is reflected in the data by type of family based mental health: the most mentally stable were "consistent traditionalists" quite well - "consistent democracy" and marginalized in terms of psychic norm - intermediate types.
In the first type of family ( "patriarchal"), the main "paper clip for" psychological solidarity is the co-operation, in the second - the intimacy.In the transition types, apparently, inconsistent role - rather a consequence than a cause of violations of intimacy and cognitive agreement, although it is often believed that it is - the result of the rudimentary traditional norms like cognitive structures.
Intimacy - the least "demanded" an element of traditional family models and the most significant for the egalitarian model.It is not surprising that he is "weak link" in the transition from the first to the second.These "intermediate" model: - option is not traditional, but on the contrary - the modern family, but in violation of its central link - intimacy, leading to a "failure" in the social and psychological functioning.An example is the problem of unwanted children (according to research, they constitute a risk group in social terms), have repeatedly noted the relationship between marriage satisfaction and productivity, mental and physical health of people.
The prevalence of "middleware", marginal types of family relationships, their transitional character - perhaps the most important feature that explains the difficulties faced by the family in the former Soviet Union, the main reason for dissatisfaction with family life experienced by millions of people.Some are insurmountable burden of traditional authoritarian family relations, strict family discipline, dependent status of women and children, the lack of freedom of choice.From a variety of types of protest: the huge number of divorces initiated by women to hundreds of annual self-immolation of women and girls in some of the Central Asian republics.Others suffer, on the contrary, from the reformed, intra immature democracy, is not accompanied by adequate liability and generating numerous dysfunctional, family conflict.