Typology of family models
family is not just a social group, but also a social institution.
By definition, sociologists "institution" is the set of social roles and statuses, designed to meet particular social needs.
you should clarify "the role of" concepts and "status".
Under the status understood human position in society with certain rights and responsibilities, and the role - this is the expected behavior associated with a particular status.If a person has the social status of a nobleman, the surrounding expect from him only the execution of its role:.. Loyalty to the emperor, compliance with the code of honor, personal autonomy and responsibility, etc. Roles person assigns during socialization, under the influence of the immediate social environment, which it imitates,that it promotes for some actions and punishes others.
result of socialization of the child is determined by the assignment of social norms and values in the course of interaction with other people.And a decisive role in the socialization of the child pl
family as a social institution, in addition to educational performs a number of functions, namely: 1) an economic function - in the pre-industrial era, and the family was the primary industry group, now - in the family of distributed income earned outside, and there is consumption, 2) functiontransmission of social status -Family different backgrounds have different social status and transfer it to the new family members - children, 3) maintain the well-being of the family function.
Many researchers, in particular, T. Parsons, argue that now the family has lost the function in connection with the transition of the developed countries in the phase of post-industrial society, and essential functions of the family left the socialization of children.
I believe that the socialization of children has always, at all times and in all nations, was the only one specific function of the family, and other functions are optional and changed over the centuries.
Sociologists distinguish the following basic forms of family:
1) The nuclear family - is made up of adults and children who depend on them;
2) Extended family includes the nuclear family and relatives (grandparents, grandchildren, sisters, brothers, and others.).
family like any other social institution sealed system power.There are three types of power structures: the patriarchal family, where power belongs to the husband, matriarchal family - the power belongs to the wife, egalitarian family - the power is distributed evenly between husband and wife.
I believe that the latter family, typical of the industrial era and are the result of the crisis of the family as a social institution, masks the breakdown of the family structure and latent conflict: in industrialized countries, a growing number of divorces, and in post-industrial countries is maximized.This allows American sociologists talk about the collapse of the family and the birth of a new variant of human relations, have nothing to do not only with the "traditional family", but also the family as such.In the United States for 30 years (1960 to 1990) the divorce rate has increased almost 15 times, it is the highest in the world.
Although the emergence of "alternative" families, the spread of homosexual marriages, living in communes and goal relations, replacing the family, suggesting the progressive failure of the family as a social institution, the consequences of failure are catastrophic for the process of socialization of children.
Domination working mother in the family leads to the fact that children are worse assimilate values, norms and morals of society.However, studies American psychologists have fallen that juveniles rarely leaving i families of single parents, mostly from families with two parents in conflict.But the children of single mothers are experiencing major problems in social adaptation, the choice of a marriage partner, and upbringing of their children.The thread of social inheritance breaks.
The Russian family, despite having similar processes taking place in the United States, also retains its essential social function.
introduced a number of additional important concepts:
1. The real family - specific family as a social group, the object of study.
2. A typical family - the most common in the community version of the family model.
3. The ideal family - a standard model of the family, which is accepted by society, reflected in the collective representations and the culture of the society in the first place - the religious.
4. Elementary family - a family consisting of three members: husband, wife and child.
subject of our discussion will be the ideal family model in terms of their psychological structure.Composite nuclear family, where several children, should be regarded as a conjunction of several elementary.
So, the family is a social institution, and the specific family - institutionalized social group, the function of which is in the primary socialization of children.
Like any other institutionalized group, it is sealed relationship "power-subordination" and mutual responsibility.Family members may love one another may hate, to meet their sexual and other needs of the family, or "on the side", have their own children or adopted, but there is a system of relations and until the family has the task of raising children - it exists.Since this is not a marriage, but the family will not operate the terms "husband" and "wife" and "father" and "mother" - this is the role defined in the socialization function and to ensure a child's function.They may not perform
only the biological mother and father, but incomplete, and even complete families - grandparents, other relatives, older brothers and sisters, even though such performers replacing defects occur socialization.
For example, in homosexual families with a child, one partner may assume the function of the mother, and the other - the father function.
But people are people and relationships show the entire spectrum of their experiences: in an integrated form of the relationship can be described by another parameter - the emotional and psychological intimacy, which is associated with motivation affiliation (attachment).Between the three types of relationships that characterize the psychological model of the family, there is some connection.Domination assumes responsibility for those who submit, and the responsibility - the power over people, responsible for the implementation of tasks.
Psychological intimacy usually negatively correlated with the ratio of "domination-subordination": the greater the power of one person over another, the less psychological closeness between them, as is the power of coercion.
Love of media power also occurs in certain cultures and nurtured.
We give a description of the major types of relationships that are realized in the family.
1. The dominance-submission
family - is primarily a structure in which the attitude of the authorities realized: the dominance-submission.
most, in my view, a comprehensive definition of domination (power, domination) made a political scientist Robert A. Dahl: "My intuitive idea of power looks like this: A has power over B to the extent that he can get in to dothat, left to itself, in doing would not. "
Social Rank even characterizes the individuals in a group of animals of the same species living flock, herd, etc. In a certain area.The struggle for the domination of individual of being constantly and with varying degrees of success.
Relationship "domination-submission" in the group of people, no doubt, have a social and cultural specificity and, of course, not confined to the "pecking order» (pecking order).There are 5 types of social power that characterize the relationship between the child and the adults in the family (French and Raven).
1) The power of remuneration - the child may reward certain behavior.The award follows the social and approves the (expected) Act, the penalty - for socially reprehensible.
2) The power of coercion - it is based on strict control over the behavior of the child, each minor offense shall be punished (or verbal - threats or physical).
3) Expert power - based on the greater competence of parents in a particular case (social or professional competence).
4) The authority of the government - it is based on respect for the person (one parent), which is a model - carrier socially approved behavior.
5) The rule of law - the only form of impersonal power, but the bearer and interpreter of the "law" - rules of behavior - are grown for the child and, in particular, parents.
Usually, social psychologists associated with the dominance of the adoption of social responsibility for the actions of the group: the dominant member of the group responsible for the successful implementation of the common objectives and, in addition, is responsible for maintaining normal relations between the members of the group.
In addition, to the dominance associated improvisational activity and initiate action.It is believed that the most successful leaders are those inclined to bargain, indifference to interpersonal relationships, able to resist the social pressure, seeking to achieve, the risk and enjoy manipulating others.
task dominant personality - group security, coordination of actions of its members in order to achieve group goals, the definition of life and prospects for development of the group and the suggestion of faith in the future.
dominance of one of the spouses is a necessary condition for the stability of the family.Equally important is the satisfaction in marriage, provided an equal and joint leisure activities.
Responsibility Responsibility is one of the most difficult concepts in the content of personality psychology and social psychology.
In the framework of the theory of moral consciousness, there are several hypotheses about the nature of responsibility and stages of development of responsible behavior.
By K. Helkmanu, there are three phases of formation of responsibility: 1) an autonomous subjective responsibility, 2) responsibility as a social duty, 3) responsibility, based on the principles of morality.
F. Heider typology is based on the concept of attribution (attribution) of responsibility for the actions of self or surroundings.F. Haider attribution identifies five levels of responsibility: 1) "association" - the person responsible for each result that has something to do with it, 2) the "cause" - the person responsible, even if he could not have foreseen the result, 3) "foreseeability"- responsible for the foreseeable consequences of any action, 4)" intention "-otvetstvennost only for the fact that the person intended to do, 5)" accuracy "- the person responsible for the actions shared with others.
personal responsibility associated with its manifestation in behavior: "The degree of personal responsibility - a sense of a certain control over the commission of action and its outcome."
K. Muzdybaev defines social responsibility as follows: "It is above all the quality that characterizes the social typicality personality.Therefore, we will talk about social responsibility, bearing in mind the tendency of the individual to stick in their behavior generally accepted in the society social norms, fulfill role obligations and its readiness to give an account for their actions.The alienation from social norms and the inability to find the meaning of life weaken social responsibility.
K. Muzdybaev identifies the following vector of responsibility: 1) from the collective to the individual (vector individualization by Piaget).With the development of society for an act of the individual is responsible not the group to which belongs to the person who committed the act, but he himself;2) from the outer to the inner, conscious of personal responsibility (vector spiritualisation responsibility for Piaget), the transition from the external to the internal control of behavior;3) from retrospective to prospective plan - responsible not only for the past but for the future;identity not only anticipates the results of their actions, but also actively seeks to reach them;
4) responsibility and "statute of limitations" - the ability to influence the former relations between people on their real relationship, they have others.
Dorofeev ED proposes to add the vector of another responsibility.This vector can be defined as the development of individual responsibility for an increasing number of people - "the responsibility for themselves liable for all."
take responsibility for the possible relationships in the group, as well as for its activities (goal, outcome and process).The responsibility for group relations is divided into the liable 1) for group norms (as a result of past interactions), 2) the desire for a change in the rules, traditions, attitudes (future), 3) for the actual status of the group (now).
person can take responsibility for themselves, for the individual members of the group for the reference group (part of the group to which belongs) and for the group as a whole.
Thus ED Dorofeev put forward a three-dimensional model of group responsibility;1) the time (past, present, future), 2) characteristics (activity, relational), 3) the subject (for himself, for other individual, for a group).
This model is obviously required to supplement another option: to whom shall be a person responsible (in front of him, in front of the other individual, to the group as a whole, society as a whole).
In this case, a family member may be responsible for other individual family members (such as husband or wife, or children), and for the family as a whole.The role of the leader, head of the family assumes is responsible for the family as a whole: its past, present, future, activity and behavior of family members in front of him and his family, to the community (the closest social environment) and the part of the people of the world (society), which belongs to the family.It is always the responsibility of others, and not just a separate loved ones, and for the social group as a whole.
3. Emotional intimacy
Psychologically, it is based on the motivation of affiliation.Murray in 1938 described the motive for affiliation requirements as follows: "to make friends and to feel affection.Joy to others and to live with them.Collaborate and communicate with them.Be in love.Joins the group. "Under the affiliation (contacts, communication) we meant certain klasssotsialnyh interactions with everyday and at the same time fundamental.Their content is in communion with other people (including people with strangers or unfamiliar), and is its maintenance, which brings satisfaction, draws and enriches both sides.
Affiliation must complete the assigned vzaimopriyatnyh, friendship, sympathy partners in dialogue.People are motivated not only positively (the hope of establishing a good relationship), but also negative (fear of rejection).These motivational expectations are formed on the basis of generalization of the human experience of communication with other people.
Affiliation opposite power - love pushes man to do things that he wants to do, but the fear of the authorities (motivation subordination) leads to such actions that a person would not have committed on their own.
therefore affiliative motivation is almost always acts as a compensator of motivation "and subordination of power": nowhere so much is said about the love for others in Orthodox theology, and yet it is in the Orthodox dogma of the boom-attitude "power-submission" has a special meaning.
Muslim dogma for the same purpose use "respect": junior to senior, the wife to the husband (first - i ioknee)."Respect" - is another recognition of the importance in comparison with the other, but without love.The "respect" submission motivation fused with self-motivation in a single structure.
Psychological models of elementary families can be divided on the following grounds:
1. Who is responsible for the family: the father or mother (or the age of the child has reached the legal capacity)?
«normal" family, we assume a family where the responsibility of the husband (father).
«anomalous" family is said to be a family, where the husband is not responsible for it.
If responsibility does not bear one - is "psevdosemya".
2. Who dominates in the family?
father is dominated by a patriarchal family.
mother is dominated by matriarchal family.
The so-called "detotsentricheskoy" real family (psychologically) dominates the child's needs or whims.