Human needs , natural and artificial
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However, home economics can not be separated from matters more complex than primitive calculations of money from payday to payday.The economy is closely linked with what we call the necessities of life, they are largely dependent on the satisfaction of the most urgent and material desires, and the development of high spiritual needs.
«... people must first eat, drink, have shelter and clothing, before being able to engage in politics, science, art, religion, etc ....." - Wrote Engels (Marx, K. F. Engels, Soch., vol. 19, p. 350).Moreover, without these conditions everyday person can not start a family.So arrogant to household needs - either a sham or frivolous, heavily mixed with the parasitism, does not know where and how to grow the rolls, where do things and what has need of money.
But there is the other extreme in the relationship of people to household problems when only money and things, eating, drinking and square meter measured values all li
Joint newlywed life begins with the wedding.At this celebration is obvious manifest material needs and capabilities of the two families.Here are the relatives of the bride frantically running around the shops, commission, by the studio in search of a special material on the wedding dress.Ask at such a moment the girl's mother that she is looking for and what it does not taste that is on the counter, or available in the studio.
- Such a good each might be.And we want to, we had better than that of neighbors and friends.
are invited to the restaurant tens, and in some areas, and hundreds of guests, relatives, friends, acquaintances, with whom at other times barely say hello or even do not know.What for?One to the large number of people to share the joy of the family, because as you know: shared joy arrives, and grief - decreases.Other fanning the event to showcase their property capabilities, breadth and scope of nature ( "Let no one think that we are sorry for the child of his own money").
It is in the city.The village has its own criteria of how to be decent and to celebrate the wedding, but the costs motive scale festival the same: to make it, at least - is not worse than the others and, as a maximum - the better.
In this, as in a drop of water, reflected a complex range of feelings, aspirations, desires that guide the family members as they build their material relations and ways to meet them.
objectives and means.As you can see, once again, we come up against in these fundamental concepts that in the purely material sphere determine our successes and failures, the well-being of body and soul or the squandering of the whole family well-being.
purpose of joint management explain and child: it is required to satisfy hunger, thirst, not to walk barefoot and naked, it was warm and comfortable as possible cozy and nice that in these conditions, to nurture offspring, gather strength, healthfor the righteous works.The requirements listed here are referred to as the vital, t. E. Of life, from the Latin word "vita" (life).Otherwise, they are also called natural.But the ways of meeting them and the extent of their expansion can be reasonable or unreasonable, artificial and even distorted, is not caused by the urgent needs, but solely by considerations of self-love: behold the most - to "like everyone else", "no worse than others," "better than others".
Hunger.He is satisfied with food simple, unpretentious, does not require any special tricks to cooking, complex and expensive servings.Appetit.- quite a different matter: it requires order, art, diversity.There is also gourmandism, t. E. A particular fondness for food.Then the food becomes a cult, her subordinate all other desires.Sometimes it turns into an addiction disease - gluttony, full violation and physical processes, and moral attitudes.A kind of addiction.There were times when "eaten away" fortunes.
about drinking it is the same.Natural thirst quench easier: palm, outstretched under a jet stream, and that "as long as" that's a joy.In the village well, a bucket, a samovar and a cup.In the city and a glass of water.Next - a kettle and tea leaves: whether from homegrown herbs, whether from overseas tea.Or a home brew, juice, juice ... And then everything like food.The needs increase and their costs: so-so coffee, tea, fizzy, painted, prestigious lemonades, "cola" tonics.Then unnaturally grafted human bad examples need to alcoholic beverages, the most-refined or, on the contrary, the most-robust, though unclean, poisonous organism, destroying the mind and personality.
Clothes-shoes.And here is the same: once emerged with the aim to protect the body from cold, wounds and scratches, protect from sun and wind, and therefore, really natural, she with the development of civilization has acquired an additional, artificial value: the sign, the symbol of a person belonging togenus-specific tribe.Over time, it is increasingly turning into a kind of a visible profile: Who is this person from any country, any nation, rich or poor, and another - a raised, whether the taste is committed whether general rules or acts itself developed.In short, "meet on clothes."And to this day there is an such a principle.There is nothing unnatural.
But the clothes for some people becomes all-consuming passion, a way of self-affirmation.However, as well as other household items: the houses themselves, and their utensils, vehicles, works of art, a means of transmitting information, works of art ... There was a long time and to this day there is ambiguity of the material world.And sometimes, instead of to occupy their rightful place, the means of existence - things become objective.
This trend is entrenched with the division of human society into different clans, groups, classes.Sami definition "propertied classes" and "have-nots" absorb this fundamental difference of people, often in everything else one does not differ from each other.This material embodiment of benefits may be the most diverse and disparate, from some special shells at the Polynesian savages - to the treasures of the Mughals, bursting with gold and precious stones;from smoky, but decorated with the skins of fox plague rich Kamchadal - to lush palaces of European rulers.Even within the same tribe, one nation always had their graduation, their wealth and the poverty level.
All peoples gradually established powers.It strongly the perception of things, as a visible sign of social benefits and prosperity, strength and power.Such a view for centuries failed to beat any of the prophets, neither philosophers nor poets, tirelessly attacked the stronghold fortress, dividing people into warring camps.
Let us recall the reaction of Russian society to the call and try to destroy the property of Leo Tolstoy barriers.What is special made the Count?He began to plow, to walk in a simple linen clothes, sleeping on a hard bed, walk barefoot or in boots homemade, eat simple food.And assure that the most healthy way of life - both physically and morally - the one that leads the worker - peasant.What caused the fur fly, this "fad" of the famous writer from the haves!Although millions of Russians lived that way, nobody did not care and are not shocked.But as it is possible to mix lifestyle different social classes ?!It's a real revolution!
Now we know that the writer really advocated for a healthy regime and lifestyle.But the concept of health is also a category socially significant.One thing extracted and stored by their work and their own efforts, and the other - medical care, the efforts of workers, on the treatment of water and other means, again bestowed superiority property.It turns out that a person infected with class prejudices, ready to turn away from all that is in his favor, but would not be like his brother, standing on the bottom step of the social ladder.
From this perspective it becomes clear angry anxiety of the Russian elite (and even the Lion Tolstogo- family members of his wife, for example, Sophia Andreyevna): if the powers that be in the home will live just as poor, then why all their benefits - all these titles, ranks, money and valuables?And without them is unthinkable to assert their authority over those who have always been considered a working cattle.
Here are the revolutionary implications of the aristocracy saw in this seemingly simple act, such as food and clothing of the great man.
Things - insignia.It is their quality, they sometimes remain to this day, poisoning kinship, friendship, companionship.And at the same time allow things to manifest our professional, artistic imagination, our commitment to the improvement of life, comfort and beauty.
historical development of mankind in the field of material needs is from the natural, simple, healthy forms to more and more complicated, largely artificial.In developed countries, people are moving farther away from the necessary products and things to excess, and the prestigious "landmark."This happens in direct coordination with the development of man, from being mainly a biological essentially social, to which the laws of society are basic laws.
Here's how perceived this evolution needs Enlightenment philosophers: they believed that man by nature itself created in such a way that it can not stay in
its activities, in curiosity, in the pursuit of novelty, having satisfied natural needs, it issoon forced to build their brand new needs, or rather, his imagination makes the old needs more sophisticated.The "natural needs" will inevitably replace the need, which we call imaginary or notional;last become as necessary to our happiness as the first.
Marxist philosophy opened the indissoluble link-dependence on the individual needs of social development, and primarily on the development of social production.And indeed, we can get in your own disposal only such things, the services that people have learned to create.For instance, what good would a distant our ancestors have a need for hot soup, cooked vegetables, if not yet been discovered and established refractory materials, and in which it became possible to cook a variety of foods.Yes, they'll probably never experienced such a demand.Rather, she appeared only after new materials, there was the art of making dishes were opened.
is now difficult to determine that the first born: the need for things or producing them is often "provoked" the need.Take, for example, such cutting-edge items that have become for most of us need, as radios, televisions and telephones.They are designed to satisfy our natural desire to communicate, to obtain new information, new experiences, interesting sights and entertainment.But who of the current grandparents imagined that it will receive the funds quench their eternal thirst for novelty?Who appealed to scientists: we create for such devices, without them our lives are not in life?
A few decades ago, access to only a small number of people has been opened to these benefits of civilization.These devices were symbols of social prosperity.Now they - the usual elements of our daily life.About 90% of families in our country have a TV, and more - radios.Behind it is a phone, but also, probably not long have to wait a maximum of telephones of cities, and then villages.And maybe there will be new means of communication.Who knows?
untwist But let's back as a film, the process is the emergence of quite materialized desires and sophisticated ways to meet them.
Inquiring minds of scientists had to first feel the need to open a method of transmitting information over a distance.When the obvious successes have been achieved, it was necessary to create a skilled and small-scale production, since large-scale have not yet been established prerequisites and conditions: there was no industrial capacity or market demand.
took to develop the mining industry, supplying various raw materials, expand and equip the new equipment manufacturing industry, and all related industries to develop scientific and technical data and, of course, increase the level of control over the production of multi-stage mechanism.
such a complex economic, industrial and scientific problems require a huge number of specialists in different fields and high enough training.Without secondary education, which would have possessed a multi-million army of workers, none of the sectors would not be able to make such a leap.Only on the basis of general secondary education and the ever-increasing special (secondary and higher) will carry out the progress in any sphere of modern economy.
So, it was necessary also to orient young people to special education, arouse the need for it to work under such a degree.Excited, in fact, the spiritual need in the production of quite tangible assets, which are intended to serve to meet the spiritual needs of millions of our fellow citizens ... That is a cycle in the nature of our needs and methods of their implementation is done all the time.And notice how many times the idea is embodied in things and, on the contrary, things stimulate the emergence of new ideas.Everything that we create and consume, Marxists called "materialized relationship" of man to nature, to others and to himself.
Based on this belief, we started to talk about the home economy to clarify the relationship.Here, the laws in force in a large area of the country and on a tiny bridgehead family housing, manifest themselves similarly.And one of the laws in force in our society - it is the law of constant elevation requirements, and accordingly a constantly overlooking the production.
- But is it possible to fulfill all the fantasies, all the dreams and needs of the person, if they have no borders and measures?Who and how can they adjust?
have primitive people control their desires acted nature, as well as in animals.She taught her children: do not take more than is necessary to sustain life, in another time and do not get the required.You'll overeat - animals can not catch or did not run away from it.You'll be hungry - the same thing.Not zapaseshsya food for the future - you will die at the time of bad weather and lack of food.All animals - thrifty, Who fat under the skin lays, who burrows in the cell collects the good, and who graze their food like ants, dolphins.So far, the distribution of benefits was solved man's own strength, his agility, ingenuity, people have lived under the laws of, so to speak, environmental justice and expediency.These laws entrenched in moral principles, characteristic of the inhabitants of the region.For example, for the inhabitants of the places where nature is generous and fertile, where you can effortlessly make a living, there was no need to develop special thrift, there was no need to fence and complex economy, create special utensils, build capital buildings.In such regions, slowly developed the production of things and technical equipment that are urgently needed in the edges with more severe climatic conditions.The peoples of the northern areas, especially where every piece of land watered by the blood and sweat of the farmer, the attitude to the fruits of the earth, of course, was different than in countries where the dates and bananas themselves fell into his mouth.Because northerners are more frugal, thrifty, prudent, but more acumen, initiative in procuring the means of subsistence.
Drinking material values determined yet and population density, the size of living space.For example, in the tundra, taiga, desert, in remote mountainous areas, in remote villages, where the meeting with a stranger happy (or dangerous) rare guest - a sacred person.He is everything: warmth, honor, best piece, a precious gift.