Income and expenses in the family
«Economy must be economical."These words we hear daily on the radio, the television, read the newspapers, there has been talk about it at home, at the dinner table.Probably, such a judgment at first seem strange to you: like say that the oil should be oily.But the above "set" options for doing household chores convinced that housekeeping can be wasteful and skuperdyayskim.Both uneconomical.
How best to maintain the family business?Here we can not do without tsifiri.Of course, that will have to operate with a statistically averaged data.Turning over this information to the expert, Doctor of Economic Sciences BV Rakitskiy, released a very interesting and instructive book, which is called "welfare strategy."
We are interested in: What opportunities has the average Soviet family?Economist says that the most important in the formation of the material conditions of life of the family are two factors: the level of income and family composition.Other operating ratio in the family and dependents (children, the
«In any society, there is the concept of high, medium and low security of families, respectively - high, medium and low income per capita.It is clear that over time, as the improvement of living standards, there is an increase of criteria each of these groups, so that today the average level of security - is yesterday's high and low tomorrow.This means that the same salary at different times gives us the opportunity to lead in different ways their services ", - writes BV Rakitskiy and leads the dynamics of the Soviet family's livelihood for the past two decades.
During the period from 1966 to the 80 years of monetary income of the population has doubled.
significantly change our spending.On the food we now spend a total of more than before, but as a percentage of less than a few years ago.It is understandable why?Wages strictly increasing, and public prices for most products do not change.Total expenses increased to more products and due to the fact that their composition is changing: decreasing the consumption of cheap and less high-calorie foods, such as bread and potatoes, which are used in Russia is consumed in large quantities.It grows in our diet the proportion of more expensive and more high-calorie foods: meat, fish, butter, eggs, sausages, milk, and vegetables and fruits.
On average, our family spends on food from the third to half of all revenues.Approximately the same percentage are manufactured goods.And in their quantity and quality of a significant shift.Growing expenditure on durable items (and thus more expensive).. Refrigerators, televisions, motorcycles and cars, sets of furniture, carpets, furs, etc. In most cases there is a change of clothes, shoes, more and more attention is paid to modern models, rather than justbe shod feet were so body cover, as it has been recently.
Today the villagers were as active consumers of industrial, and many food products, and that the townspeople.villagers economy has undergone the most drastic changes.Therefore, the need is now a variety of goods many times greater than it was three decades ago.This demonstrates the law of equitable leveling the standard of living of the Soviet people, wherever they live, whether in a city or village.But in this process, as in any other, has its negative sides.With the "ship of modernity" cleared customs, habits, developed centuries-old experience of the people, to adapt to certain conditions of life.The peasantry was common custom to buy nothing that can be done to get himself, not to throw away anything that can still amiss in the economy.
peasant thrift and revving in the conditions of energy deficit, declining mineral reserves, land of opportunities to feed and clothe the growing population of the planet is naipolezneyshey habit.But, unfortunately, the peasants themselves gradually changed their customs, these, having before him the example of urban families and the increasing number and improving the quality of consumer goods, which, of course, can not compete craftsman single, self-made master.
Today in our total economy - the economy of the state - approved by the trend, industrial production should be non-waste, one in which the waste of one company and the economy would become the raw material for another.But this situation can not become public, if in our own house and farm, we do not get the hang of thrift and utilitarizatsii everything obsolete, out of fashion.But in the nature of today's young (and not so young) people have already established wasteful, careless way of dealing with things, to change it will be oh how difficult.
With the growth opportunities are forgotten and are reasonable principles of management, as the "dress for success to stretch the legs."Today's young wife often starting a life together, have no idea about how to allocate their own income, not to run for the relatives and friends to pay, intercepting borrow ten.
There has been named the main figures on the cost of food and clothing, not more than 80% of total revenue.We should also take into account the monthly fee for an apartment, electricity, gas, the cost of transport, cultural activities and entertainment, sports, travel on vacation for the holidays and gifts.
curious in this regard, the Council, which gave women Gogol.Here are some excerpts from his economic advice: "Do not engage in the general flow of the book, but make an estimate of the entire advance from the beginning of the year, embrace all the needs of your own, realized forward, how much you have had spent a year according to your wealth, and all give a round sum.Divide your money into seven piles ....The first will be a pile of money for an apartment, with otopkoyu, firewood and all that does not belong to the walls of the house and the cleanliness of the yard, on the second pile - money on the table and on edibles with a salary and cook all the food that either lives in your house;in the third pile - the crew: the carriage, coachman, horse, hay, oats ...;in the fourth pile - money on clothes, that is all that is needed for both of you then, to appear in the light of, or to stay at home;in the fifth pile will be your pocket money;in the sixth - the money for emergency expenses, which can meet ... Make the seven piles you stayed unmixed, as if seven individual ministries.Keep consumption of every particular, and under any pretext not occupy from one pile to another.What neither to present to you at this time bargains and no matter how tempted you are cheapness - do not buy ... to strengthen the real order of business, you will be strong insensitive towards peace order ".
thoroughly modern outlines expenditure.We changed only everyday objects, but not the nature of the distribution of funds.Instead, board cook - the cost of food in the dining room instead of the coach with coachman and ever rising in price of oats, you can keep in mind a motorcycle with a garage and fuel for it, too, will inevitably rise in price, with the repairman master, etc. And a very convenient system of accounting..accounting.It is possible in special envelopes to store money, intended to meet daily needs.And indeed, not to succumb to temptations perezaema in themselves.This excellent Exercises willpower and reasonable regulation of their own desires and impulses.
- And what if I want to buy an expensive thing, but a one-month money at it do not gather in the other it can not meet?
I will not on its own behalf to give advice, again turn to Gogol: "All we have is now broke and unlaced.Rubbish and rag everyone became man;He turned himself in the foot just vile and slave the most empty and petty circumstances, and there is now nowhere in the true sense of freedom.This freedom of a friend of mine ... defines as follows: "Freedom is not to say the arbitrariness of his desires:" yes ", but to be able to tell them" no. "He was right, as the truth itself. "
Let us hear this is not very pleasant truth from a great man, because it has a bearing on them and some of us.
With few exceptions (the construction of a house or cooperative apartments) there are no such things that are expensive, that they are vital.As they say: "All that is needed - cheap, all unnecessarily, - it's expensive."
If the purchase or consumption requires many months of accumulation, then, will be put off and save, but not to the detriment of the rest of expenditure.How?Replace one needs and more modest spending.For example, we want to go in the summer on a journey that requires considerable expenses: Money on the road, on tour, at sports and "representational" outfit.Set up special items in these sections of the budget first ( "piles") with a focus on vacation.Under clothes, entertainment, and cultural interests, even in power - their contributions in cash for future trips.
can reduce the cost of optional products such as fruit overseas, and it does not suffer damage in the necessary vitamins, as it is known: oranges less vitamins than in our northern cabbage, the more sour.Reduce the intake of fat and can be, if not fry foods.Fried foods are more harmful than boiled.In general, natural products, they are less susceptible than the processing, the more nutrients retain.So, in homes where heating is charged according to consumption of firewood, electricity, gas, save money on fuel, too, it will be possible to redirect in the box very, very desirable rate.But savings in the media, rather than the required calories.
reasonable Gogol's proposal to refrain from unnecessary purchases, even if they are cheap, especially - if the road: Things like their creators - people who do not suffer alone, they need a "decent society."For example, we bought unexpectedly met ... well, let's say, trendy coat.And by the cloak no shoes, who would in color and a style suited to the new thing.So, buy shoes.But they can not "dock" with any dress or suit that is already in your wardrobe.So, face new costs, or shoes will dress only in the street, in the same room they have to change.And still need and handbag to match the cloak and shoes.There, you see, and an umbrella would be screaming in discord with the new clothes.And the toilet would require changing the color of lipstick ...
The same thing can happen with the acquisition of new chandeliers, new sofa, carpet, even with walls pasting some special wallpaper.And I have to admit: the original and a spectacular thing, so capricious in her temper, the greater the destructive consequences of its appearance in the house.
Candidate of Philosophical Sciences LG Borisova, as befits a man of such rank, tried to approach the female wardrobe from a scientific point of view and create a scheme that would help us to avoid such missteps and not fall for unnecessary, but seductive things.The main principle methods: not buy single items having no affinity that is present in the house.Each acquisition must be connected with the maximum number of other components: the color, the style, the place of use and purpose.No items in the locker room of sports, you should know that the purchase of a coveted jacket is true razzorom.Out of everyday life things that are consonant with, say, pink color, do not buy a pink jacket, as if she liked you either.Unjoinable colorful dress with a lace collar, and strict you have not yet happened - resist the temptation of buying even a low-cost collar.And put yourself five each time managed to overcome temptation.Moreover, do your best to enjoy overcoming his weakness as a celebration of beauty and Intelligence.
saving habit and helps to start up in business waste.How much money we spend on the purchase of new-fangled tools for the care of their appearance: the expensive soaps and shampoos, creams and lotions.But Estheticians dissuade us from the pursuit of novelties.A lot of people make money on the disease hair, skin, allergies ... more useful to use dry bread for washing the hair, the remnants of sour milk, sour cream, mayonnaise for rubbing into the skin.Peel fruits and vegetables for use nourishing masks.We often throw it all in the garbage can, throwing at the same time and their health (as through the skin into the body also receives nutrients), and their money, and others' works for the extraction of these products.
reduce mandatory spending like it is always possible, it is always possible to compensate for disappointment from failed purchase.I remember how my friends reacted to suddenly emerged hype surrounding carpet.Money on her like Refresh was not, and was not expected.And also I wanted to decorate the walls of the house.She took "cook" your, Handstitched carpet of old blankets, dresses, bought only finishing materials.And he built panels it is that all owners of standard handsome Palacio took only envy.
In recent years all over the world found leaning toward it needlework items.They are considerably more expensive in the market of industrial products.This is understandable when all can be the same as me (and when millions of copies all sorts of goods invariably appears stuffed nauseam standard), then certainly there is a desire to have something unique.That can only be the product manual of the master.Here you have a return to kustarschina to amateur rukomeslu, which recently owned our village and grandparents and who were in no hurry to adopt their ability eager for fashion novelties kids and grandchildren.
The fact that the self-made things and services - the source of very significant savings on the things and services paid, we have said before.Unfortunately, the work of an amateur takes even a very small part of our leisure time.If watching television and listening to the radio men and women spend about 28% of free time, then an amateur work only about 1.5%.
... economy - the concept of the moral.we begin to learn when we pass from the category of low-income in the category provided it with all the more acute.Here we reflected on how to deal with the limited opportunities.Generally it believed that the lack of financial difficulties removes from the soul all the worries and problems.Buy what you want, enjoy the benefits of life in the pleasure.All this is true.At only for people who do not think about what they will do, and especially their children in an atmosphere of vsedostupnosti.After all, if it is honestly earned money, it gets them high-class specialists.These people are usually higher than average level of knowledge and skills.They are in plain sight, they look around, they imitate those who follow them.Hence, they should set an example of moral and rational needs to meet them.
It is safe to say that a lot of professionals who have a high salary, are a reasonable way of life and his household to teach restraint in consumer desires.Repeatedly never been to the homes of prominent figures of science and culture, famous workers and see how unpretentious they are in clothing, food, furnishings in their rooms.The most important value for them - it's communication with interesting people, books, all sorts of works of art.Some, however, are addicted to collecting collections that require huge expenses.But increasingly, we learn that such meetings daryatsya home town or village, whence comes this figure.
heard you're probably out of the newspapers, as the famous poet Rasul Gamzatov large sums of money transferred to the Fund for Peace, a pop singer Alla Pugacheva gave up awards at international festivals for the benefit of children and organizations fighting for peace.
Such contributions commendable.They can not be called donations, because the victim in the deepest sense of the word here is not that people are not abandoned by necessity, but by excess.Often, a good example is supplied with welfare slightly above average, when in a hurry to share with those who need help: with low income, relatives, friends, got into trouble, give modest savings to help the orphans, the beautification of the streets, on the preservation of nature, monuments