What are the family ?
question of classification, typology of families, on the one hand, is very important, because the presence of such a classification allows a person to easily find "their own kind" in countless households to borrow the experience of life, by analogy with them most successfully solve their problems.On the other hand, it is very complex.Until now, there is even a more or less universally accepted typology of the person, and the family is in fact the formation of even more complex, because it not only brings together several different personalities, but also uses various forms, bond system, the relationship between them.Therefore, a strict typology of the family can not yet be out of the question, but the first classification, or, at least, attempts to differentiate the family in the modern science of the family have already been taken.In particular, families are distinguished by such parameters:
By family experience spouses.Here are the following families: a) family newlyweds.It's just that the birth fami
b) Young family, the next stage (in some six months or a year, while others much earlier if the "honeymoon" period is reduced).This family is confronted with the first, although it is theoretically known, but for their unexpected obstacles.Here, the couple suddenly on their own experience reveal that love alone is not enough, it must also, that he (she) had more kindness, compliance, diligence, tact, so that he (she) showed due consideration to its (his) parents, relativesclose.Some actions wife badly hurt, reduce the heat to do with it, engender a grudge against him.There are the first quarrel, the desire to change, to alter it (her), to eliminate the too-obvious defects begins "lapping characters", and spouses are increasingly getting each other little, but quite painful to the ego clicks.
c) The family, waiting for the baby.At this stage it raised a young family, expecting first child.At this time usually varies considerably spouse becomes unrecognizable and future father.It's like a return of the first period of the courtship of the future spouses, but at a new stage.Caring young husband to his wife does not know borders.Of course, in some families, there is also a different way, but in most families the husband to do so.And this attitude is necessary at this time of the expectant mother and the child.
g) the average age of the conjugal family (from three to ten years of cohabitation).This is perhaps the most dangerous, a crucial period in her life.Because in those years there boredom, monotony, stereotypical in the relations between the spouses, ignite conflicts and designated period account for the majority of divorces in our country.
d) Family marital older age (ten to twenty years of marital experience).The moral and psychological well-being of the spouses at this stage depends on the wealth of their personalities, mutual concessions, matching the needs, interests.
e) Mature couples.This kind of family there after the marriage of their children, grandchildren appearance.Spouses are included in a new role for himself and grandparents learn new functions in the family.Their interests are increasingly switching their grandchildren.
of the number of children isolated species such families: a) childless (or infortilnye) family, where for ten years of living together is not a baby.They are in our country there are approximately sixteen percent of all households.And one percent of them remained childless for medical and biological reasons, others because of the reluctance to have children.Every third family in the group breaks up, often at the initiative of men.However, this is by no means necessarily due to the fact that there are no children, but mainly due to the discord in the relationship of the spouses.
b) one-child family.Such families in urban areas, 53.6 per cent, while in rural areas - 38-41,1 percent.Of these families is divided roughly every second.However, we can not say that these families break up because they have only one child.Rather, the family is limited to one child because the couple are convinced, or simply believe that to live together for any length of time, they can not, and therefore not at risk to acquire another child.But if such a family is saved, the pedagogical possibilities of its conditions of growth, development of the child are usually not sufficiently favorable.Of the one-child family often go people are well developed intellectually and rich information, but very flawed in terms of moral-psychological and communicative.Many psychologists and sociologists say these people irresponsibility, lack of diligence, individualism, lack of will, and often self-centeredness, the inability to maintain normal relationships with people.
c) having a small family (a family with one or two children).The stability of the family with the birth of her second child in comparison with the one-child grows, according to the observations of sociologists, more than three times.If the one-child divorces every other couple here - only every sixth-seventh family.
g) large family - is now considered with such a family in which three or more children.In this type of family divorce already extremely rare, and if sometimes happen, it is only because of the economic and moral-psychological husband insolvency.This is, perhaps, quite naturally: after all, this family from the beginning differed spouses confidence in each other, in their future family, which allowed her to have many children.And many children, in turn, has a fastening impact on the family.Naturally, the main merit here belongs to a woman, wife, mother (apparently, not in vain the title of Hero of the fathers were not introduced), and, presumably, not the majority of women now able to exploit many children mothers.
family composition distinguish these species: a) parent family - when a family has only one parent with children (most often - a single mother).This occurs either as a result of the death of a spouse, or as a result of divorce, but often as a result of an illegitimate child is born, and the adoption of a single woman, and someone else's child.This type of family in social terms, perhaps the least effective.Children are very much of their time outside the home, while her mother at work, and 50 percent of the offenders make it come from these families.At the same time growing up in these families children are characterized by a large autonomy, intelligence, responsiveness, emotional.As a rule, before they begin their working life.
b) A separate, simple (or the nuclear) family (from the word nucleo - core).It is formed by married couples with or without children living separately from their parents and other relatives.They have full autonomy and therefore organize their lives as they want themselves (most - how the rest).Here the best conditions for self-expression, manifestation abilities, personal qualities of each of the spouses.However, since among these qualities have not only positive but also negative, in nuclear families can often find excessive intemperance and arrogance, negligence of the spouses in relation to each other.And because an argument here may, under certain conditions, starting because of a trifle, and grow uncontrollably to bring the family to the serious crisis and even collapse.
c) The difficult family (it is also called extended) - composed of representatives of several generations.Now filed sociological research, about 70 percent of young married couples under the age of twenty years of living in such families.From older (aged 30 years and older), only 20-25 per cent live in such families, and then only with a parent of one of the spouses.Families also involving two couples, there are only five percent.
In such a family is adjusted better life, young, tends to be more free time, rarely occur quarrels large for various trifles.Here, every member of the family tend to be more attentive to the opinions of other family members.The resulting argument is usually extinguished in the bud by a senior family members who are trying to reconcile the spouses.And already the mere presence of a stranger, a third, forcing behave somewhat differently than face to face with "his".
At the same time in such families are often the question arises about the "divorce" with the parents - of ^ the intervention of some of them in their children's lives, petty tutelage over them, strict control, as well as because of the natural tendency of young people to self-sufficiency, andthen because of the quarrelsome one of the spouses.
g) A large family consisting of three or more couples (eg, parental couple, and even a few children with their families).In the European part of our country such families are extremely rare today, even in rural areas.They also usually less quarrels, open conflicts between spouses.Here the whole family, as a rule, clearly defined responsibilities in relation to the whole family, spontaneously develops prioritize the implementation of certain family affairs, etc. But the very fact that these families little evidence:.. Modern man, overloaded internallycommunication in the workplace and on the street, they are not very suitable.
two main types of families vary in the type of headship, leadership family.The first of them - an egalitarian (equitable) family.According to sociological studies, such at us, there are about 60-80 per cent (depending on the region, from national and other characteristics of people) of the total number of families.Most of all, they are common in large cities.The distribution of household duties are done democratically, depending on who has this or that work is obtained, on the sense of responsibility, of duty.The struggle for power is not usually because the couple focused on the interests of the family, have common values and seek not command each other.
second type - authoritarian family based on unquestioning obedience to one family member to another.Of the total weight of the family according to some estimates make up one-sixth of the family matriarhatnogo type (headed by women), and one-eighth - patriarchal type, with male supremacy.This type of family is often torn by power struggles or "slave revolts," and therefore are full of all kinds of conflicts, mostly small, "local" values.But among them there are also quite "peaceful" family as "slave", "Slave" is quite satisfied with his role, as he is a man of passive, dependent and "externally controlled" by nature, unsure of himself.The least stable among authoritarian families are families in which the head of a wife.
According to family life, family life, family orientation are formed depending on the orientation of the individual spouses, of what value they prevail over all others.According to the surveys of sociologists, from 80 to 82 percent of people believe that the best quality
family man manifested primarily and mainly in relation to their loved ones, family members, and especially children.Health, development, education, education of children lie at the heart of aspirations of many families.family type, which is dominated by the orientation of such spouse, a sociologist.N. Obozova called detotsentricheskimi families.(A typical example of such a family can serve as the famous "experimental" family Nikitin).
However, a significant portion of our population is composed of people who see the family in the sense of creating warmth for its members (according to EK Vasilieva, 45 percent of respondents indicated this factor).Family gives people the opportunity to communicate with their families, like-minded people, moral and emotional support, spiritual comfort, consolation in difficult times.This terminology AN Obozova, family-vent.In such a family dominated by sensitive, trusting relationships.There may be, and you can not always see the most delicious meal, and order in the rooms is not always the most ideal.But it focuses primarily spiritual comfort family members.
Slightly less than 37 percent of those polled by sociologists see the basic quality of a family man in the assistance and participation in domestic affairs.The focus here health, nutrition, family members, proper work and rest, "the marine order", accuracy, cleanliness of the apartment, complying with all the recommendations of medical and other scientific and popular magazines regarding healthy lifestyles.
Finally, allocate even this type of family, which is more, perhaps, like a sports team or a debating club, and can, to some informal group.Members of this family are usually quite clearly expressed inattention, disregard for "household stuff" to everyone there "order", curtains and rugs.And the food here is far from being the subject of cult worship.But it all fun, interesting, there is no uniformity.This type of family is emptied of bivouac, its members travel a lot, and on foot, and with backpacks behind bicycles, and organized tourist trips.such family members are usually more able to know a lot time to see, and they constantly put forward and discussed all the new travel plans, campaigns for the next vacation or even on holidays and weekends.
By homogeneity of the social composition are two types of families.The first type - socially homogeneous (uniform) families.There we have, according to sociological research, about 70 percent of all households.In these families, both the husband and wife, and their parents belong to the same segments of society:.. For example, they all work or all employees or all - artists, etc. belonging to the same cultural and professional layer provides a better understanding betweenspouses, and between them and their parents, because the atmosphere in such families are usually quiet, friendly, family management is democratic, egalitarian and divorces are less.But the same common origin, interests, profession, place of work sometimes makes people shut down in the family from the production problems after a busy day.
second type - socially heterogeneous (diverse) family.They number filed the same study, approximately 30 percent of the total family mass.Spouses they shall have different education, different profession, the common interests of the production plan is usually much less.Egalitarian relationships here are less common, dominated by authoritarian.And with the parents of each spouse relationships are usually not smooth fold.At the same time there is high social or, more precisely, a family activity, often there is a desire for self-education of the spouses, because the educational level of inequality stimulates the "Left Behind", and "best", "overtaking" often encourages self-improvement.The quality of relationships in the family isolated many types, but a clear distinction between them is not established.In particular, the release of the family: a) prosperous, happy, that, according to Leo Tolstoy, all "alike", although he himself wonderfully portrayed two entirely different happy family (Pierre and Natasha Rostova and Mary with VolkonskayaNikolai Rostov);b) stable;c) the problem (there are often no mutual understanding, co-operation between members of the family and therefore are often cold reigns psychological atmosphere, flashing quarrels and conflicts);g) conflict, where family members were not satisfied with their family life, and because these families are unstable and pedagogically very weak;d) socially disadvantaged, which is usually the cultural level of the spouses is quite low, widespread drunkenness, coming out of these families children often make up the bulk of intractable, pedagogically neglected adolescents.And, finally, e) the disorganized family thrives where the cult of power, the dominant feeling is fear, every member of the family lives by itself, normal human contact there is little between them.In 90 percent of these families, children usually have a deviant behavior.