The social functions of the family
In fact, the family appeared on Earth long before the emergence of man, the human race.The emerging people simply used in the animal world has arisen form of cohabitation for their own self-preservation and survival.For biological feature of human reproduction (for a longer period of formation of a human baby compared with cub animals to acquisition of skills, abilities, capable of self-support themselves with everything necessary for life), led to the need of such an organization of life, a form of community, when the helpless child with his motherI could gain protection from the kind of "big family."
Subsequently, with the development of human society gradually emerged, isolate, developed and new functions of the family related to the material and spiritual, the social processes taking place in society.At every historical stage one or another function of the family was acquiring a different significance - more or less.At the same time they were constantly in interrelation and interdependence, often he
Financial family activities at different stages of development expressed by features such as the organization of the direct process of production, the accumulation of private property, the organization of consumption, as well as the exchange of its products its activities with other human communities.However, economic, material and industrial, household family function at different stages of development of society (in the primitive communal, slave and feudal societies) largely acted as a means of social, professional, moral, and then political and legal education of the younger generation.Productive work at the time did not go even beyond the family, took place in front of the children, and with a certain, relatively early age - and with their direct participation feasible.So, too, had work activity of parents dramatically increases parental authority in the eyes of children, making each word, gesture father and mother were full of much more pedagogically effective than the next, especially in modern times.
The families of peasants and artisans, as well as some of the other social groups is a phenomenon persisted after the elimination of feudal relations.But in general, the transition to capitalism, with the emergence of large factories productive labor has largely branched off, separated from the family.Actually, even management activities, their factories and plants management process capitalists are gradually becoming more and more entrusted specially trained managers, managers, immigrants not only from other families, but also from other social groups and classes.The overwhelming value of XVII-XIX centuries.in a bourgeois family gained the function of accumulation of material goods and the transfer of their inheritance.
I must say that conducted in the late twenties - early thirties of the XX century.collectivization in our country, even in rural areas separated the main part of work on family life, promoting its transformation to a large extent only in the consumer cell.Only in recent years have begun to develop self-employment activities, family contract, lease relations gradually returns productive labor in the family.It is hoped that these changes will not only increase the volume of production of food products and other items of first necessity, but also an earlier involvement of the younger generation into the labor market.And, accordingly, increase the efficiency of labor education of youth.Nevertheless, the general trend in the development of the economic functions of the family is preserved: its share to the development of society is reduced.Of the main production units in the previous era of family turns in the best case, only the auxiliary.And work in the family, I suppose, will be mainly developed at the level of enthusiasm, contributing to the development and implementation of identity of a particular type of personality.In other words, apparently, from the labor-production in the family will only work-art in the future.
However, this "art" may be over time, not less productive than the current most productive (and most debilitating conditions in a low level of mechanization) of family-contract work.The fact that the computer training from an early age, the spread of personal computers, the emergence of television stereoscopic, and maybe even a holographic image with advanced capabilities teleproektsii displayed drawings, texts, charts, images of electronic banking information, technical simulation, design, invention may significantly migrate from the design bureaus and research institutes directly to the family.And then it will be essentially dialectical "return to the old" to the family in the transformation of the main production unit of society and labor, but on a new basis, in a new form and with new content.
second part of the productive activities of the family belongs to the younger generation production.
Marx emphasized that the production people and the production of things - two necessary aspects of production process.Thus, the following function of the family, it is also inherent since ancient times, is the reproductive function, ie the function of procreation, reproduction of the population.First, of course, its biological production.Actually, even the illegitimate child born of a woman is already creating a family - albeit incomplete (unless, of course, she will not give up their child to a children's radio.).However, in relation to the production of biological children in the past decade, the family is gradually losing ground, and now it is no longer the only "nursery" of this kind.In principle, the production is apparently may well do without family.Many thinkers in ancient times seriously argued that under conditions of uncertainty (and now, by the way, existing) children better not to produce in their own family, and to choose in children's homes.Because, they say, only in this case you get exactly what you want: a boy or girl, blond or brunette, calm and quiet or fun and cheerful.
However, reproduction of the population is not only biological, but also a social moment, that is not only birth, but also education and training.Today, it is already well established that in this respect the family no adequate public institutions can not be replaced.It is in a warm friendly atmosphere of a family child naturally and most effectively gets the first socialization of their identity, it becomes a basis of self.
course, now rarely what the family can give your child the training, which may give it a society, social institutions.And because since six or seven years, our child goes to school, then to college or technical school, college and the TD, but, as a rule, the moral and psychological potential that lies child family, remains for many years and playsa significant role in the further professional growth and the formation of other social facets of personality.It is in the family of the child first encounters with the public relations of power - thanks to parental activities on the distribution of benefits, rewards and punishments, prohibitions and permissions.In the family, he meets with authority relationships - both official (the parent) and functional (based on a higher competence of parents or older brothers and sisters, their more advanced skills and the success of their activities).
But as reproductive, as well as material and production, economic activity of the family is closely linked to the life of society, they are largely in contact.Already in ancient Rome, during the time of Emperor Augustus, the first laws aimed at stimulating the birth rate in the family.They created, they provide certain benefits for all Roman citizens, having children, and at the same time, some of the material and social constraints for childless and unmarried.
lot of attention to this side of the family activities paid since its inception and the Soviet state.However, in practical life still many officials the process of birth and upbringing of children is most often perceived as a purely private matter.And the state is actually many decades had the same attitude.If you look at the statute of state awards, for example, where strictly rank the importance of each award and pointed out how the bar after which it is necessary to attach, the social weight of the medal "Maternal Glory" or even "Order of Motherhood" is significantly lower than the medal "For labor valor" or"Veteran of Labour".Call it a wise policy is hardly possible.After stealing the child's mother (even for a "legal" basis) in the first years of his life, in all honesty, very few gave the production, but took away a lot of the baby, and ultimately in society.So essentially it was just another deception bureaucratic command system of the state, trying to outsmart himself.Now the situation is gradually getting better, because too clearly manifested the negative consequences of such a short-sighted, short-sighted policies at the regional and sometimes at national level.
The third function of the family - educational.It is closely associated with reproductive, when it comes to the social reproduction of the population.The family provides the primary socialization of the individual, the child, teaches him to live among humans.But these measures is not limited to its educational function.Family child instills a basis of certain ideological and political beliefs, worldviews, in the family, he learns and develops ethical standards, but here he produced primary skills and behavior patterns, polished individual moral and psychological traits, characteristics.And the foundation of physical health and development put into the family.This is due primarily to educational family activity that is focused on the impact on the child with the aim of instilling in him a certain predetermined characteristics to meet the requirements of society.Education is carried out in the course of everyday communication with the child's family members, relatives and all the people with whom the family maintains a more or less permanent relationship.This primary socialization serves as a connecting link between the "small" world of the child, where he received his first impressions of life with the "big" world, in which he goes as far as maturing.
And in the period of study at the school of the child, then an average or higher education, while working on the production of the educational function of the family is not dying out, educational influence on the young generation does not stop.And the man who grew up in a normal family, in their actions, as a rule, guided by not only the views of all.the company or the members of its workforce, but to a large extent the views of their loved ones.It often helps him to protect themselves from improper actions, reckless actions.
next family function - recreational (ie replacement).It is known, that formed the person realizes itself primarily in socially useful activities.Of course, the annual labor union man gets leave, sometimes, if you are very lucky, gets in rest homes, sanatoriums, travels to resorts and other places of recreation, recover their strength.But everyday, basic recreational institution is still family.Here we have both physical and financial, and moral and psychological support from each other, throwing off the voltage, which "charge" in the society, in its personal, official, professional and civic functioning.It is from the family depends primarily on our social health.Even the level of effectiveness of the impact of public recreational facilities and places largely depends on what family man lives, that is, the family-recreation potential.And to-day life in the family is one person in their effectiveness to catch up with weeks of stay in a holiday home.And sometimes vice versa: in their mental stress one day stay in the family sometimes exceeds the loading of the week of labor rights.
communicative function of the family is to meet human needs in two opposite phenomena - communication and privacy.Externally imposed, forced intercourse (in the street, on public transport, at work, and so on. D.) Often not so much meet our needs in communication, as overloading them.In everyday life, the individual often experiences discomfort from having intercourse with his unsympathetic people.The situation is different home environment, where, as a rule, we are dealing with people, first, socially and psychologically close, and secondly, where more delicate, respectful of our personality.It satisfies the need for the desired contact, communicating with family, loved ones, that is. E. The need for intimate communion, in mutual understanding and mutual support.It goes without saying that such a function could be performed only healthy family.The moral and psychological health are directly related to the nature of intra-communication, with what moral and psychological climate in the family was formed.
Some sociologists also distinguish regulatory function family.It includes each other the system of regulation of each member of the family relationship, with others, with society.Actually, the regulatory function in the early stages of formation and development of the child is included in the educational function.But in relation to the adult regulatory function of the family is maintained.I have a sense of belonging in the family largely corrects the behavior of adults at work, in dealing with other people.Family man, tend to be more cautious in their actions, maybe even more conservative, if anything, less dynamic in the negative manifestations.So it makes sense of responsibility for the family.And in our time, in some republics of the Caucasus and Central Asia, for example, the word of parents, their authority plays a decisive role in choosing a spouse, addressing the issue of marriage.The problem of choice of occupation or place of work also depends on the family.
Naturally, the shape, the tactics of the regulatory activities have evolved over time all the big changes.The general trend is the same as that in the whole society:.. The transition from an authoritarian, command-bureaucratic management style to a liberal, democratic, from the command of the method to the method of persuasion, advice, council, etc. A special role is played by first official, then the function,and then the personal authority of the family members, especially parents and older siblings.Although the behavior of parents can significantly corrected the views of children and their actions.
As the humanization of society becoming more important felitsitologicheskoy family function.To some extent, it combines all the other functions, but at the same time, an independent, and, in our opinion, should be allocated not only scientific, sociological, and individual psychologically.In the sense that this function should be aware of and deliberately carried out in each family."Felicia" is translated from the Latin into Russian means "happiness".Consequently, felitsitologicheskaya function is the creation of conditions for each member of the family fortune.But to carry out this function can only be a friendly, prosperous, cultured, in full respect of the moral and psychological family.