What is marriage , why and how it arose ?
terms "marriage" and "family" in everyday speech and in scientific publications are usually a number that is indeed justified, since the reality designated by these terms, are closely interrelated.However, marriage and family - not the same thing, it is not identical, but rather overlapping concepts, because the family can exist without marriage, and marriage - without the family.
Marriage - a public establishment, institution or, as lawyers and sociologists, special public institution, a special form of social organization, as well as, for example, with the state as a special institution for the regulation of relations between its citizens, along with the Property Institute, and so on.. Marriage - is historically conditioned, authorized and regulated by society shape relations between priests, between men and women, establishing their rights and obligations with respect to each other and to the children, their offspring.In other words, marriage - a traditional means of family formation and public contr
Every woman of the herd could belong to every man the same herd, and vice versa, every man - every woman.This phenomenon is commonly referred to as endogamy, that is, marriage within a given community, "internal" marriage.But, strictly speaking, this is not entirely accurate, because the marriage in the modern sense as a public regulation of relations between the sexes while in fact did not exist.It was just a form of biogenic premarital cohabitation between men and women.
Subsequently, due to the fact that quite often arising complications, conflicts between people on the basis of sexual threatened the very existence of this kind of society has been forced to enter the artificial regulation of sexual relations.It was introduced by a sexual taboo, complete and unconditional ban on sexual relations between people within this kind in certain periods.Violators of these prohibitions were punished cruelly, and for the first time in human society originated passing through the human psyche brutal contradiction between the social and the biological, between "want" and "can not".Gradually, this has led to new, exogamous ties between people: deprived of the possibility of coming into contact with the women of his family, the men began to engage in a truly random due to the different kind of women, another community.As you can see, exogamy, this "primitive adultery" was essentially the first revolt of human nature, the human body against the attempts to establish the dictates of sociality over him.
exogamous relationship, apparently, immediately found their biological benefits from this kind of relations were born more sustainable, resilient children.So gradually endogamous ties were completely prohibited (remaining, however, for a long time on the Rights of the exceptions to the rule, only in the days of festive orgies when allowed all the things that were forbidden in ordinary weekdays).Stabilized, anchored connection exogamous customs and there was truly the first form of human, social regulation of relations between the sexes - is what we call now the marriage.Thus, the first form of marriage was actually a group of dual-tribal marriage.With him all the men of one kind "had the right" to conjugal relations with all the women of a different kind.In other words, any woman was the wife of one kind any man of a different kind.Group marriage existed in the late Stone Age.
But within this group marriage, of course, could take shape, preferred, voting relations between one or another kind of woman, and a man of a different kind (in other words, one of the "men" was particularly nice).Subsequently, it is advantageous ties with the most preferred partner gets more widespread, customs were fixed, and thus society is gradually transferred to the new form of marriage - pairing marriage.It has only one united couple.However, any of these "buddies" could thus be such pairs at a time, and even more - consistently, "scheduled" or as the disappearance of the attachment to this partner, with other people, partners or female partners.At this time, the entire economy, the production of things, food, essential items continued to be still within the primary race.The mere procreation, offspring production has gone beyond its borders.A worked and lived "wife" separately, as part of their delivery.(In the current saying it was "coming" wife).
Since biological paternity in such conditions was extremely difficult to establish, it is practically impossible, the relationship was considered maternally.Children born to these women belonging to the genus, which belonged to the woman herself."Husbands" and "wife" had a separate household, and if a man brought his children, women and herself as a gift of the extracted them to hunt food, then this part is actually detached, it was seized from the property of the kind to which this man belonged.In other words, creating more favorable conditions for women and children of another kind, it is in some way deprived of favorable conditions their family and including children of his sisters.As you can see, from the very inception of their emerging family is in conflict with the wider community, to come.
At the very end of the Stone Age, and especially in the Bronze and Iron Ages, with the emergence of agriculture, with the growth of labor productivity of people gradually created conditions in which the individual, and even more so the couple found themselves able to independently maintain and feed their children.And gradually this bath family "spun off" from family and in economic, industrial relations.Husband and wife have joined forces not only in childbirth but also in the production of things that have become a common household.Relations between the sexes has stabilized, it has become more reliable determination of paternity and responsibility for the family, for the fate of the offspring increasingly passed on to man, to his father.Together with her, of course, transport and power.Thus matriarhatnye relations gradually shifted to patriarchal, when the relationship is already considered by his father, the male line.And to replace the pair came home a new and higher form of the family: monogamous (that edinobrachnaya Network) family.Fully entrenched monogamy as a new form of marriage with the emergence of private ownership of the means of production, with the division of society into classes.My wife went to the residence of her husband, her husband's family and with the children fell under his authority.Past equality of spouses in marriage is over for many centuries.
With the transition to a society of feudalism has been set the same for all the obligatory church marriage (although the fortress could enter into it only with the permission of the owner, the landlord, the feudal lord and almost of his choice).
I must say that the patriarchal family existed and still exists in the form not only of monogamous, but polygamous marriage, where one man has the right to possess several wives, sometimes a whole harem.In this case most clearly evident inequality of women in marriage - and not only in the economic and legal relations, but also in relation to sexuality, gender relations.A woman here has the right to enter into marriage only with one man, a man the same - simultaneously with several women.Today, polygamy exists in some Muslim countries, but civilized sectors of the population is already on the decline.
be fair to point out that history knows some form of inequality in marriage: polyandry, ie polyandry.And until now, polyandry is found in some tribes of India, Tibet, South America.In India, most often the wife of the elder brother became a common wife of all brothers - and receives so-called fraterialnaya, or fraternal, family.And a woman in such families usually takes a high position, the quarrel is extremely rare, the relationship between family members, soft, friendly.
known that private property is essentially a kind of relation between the two layers of the society, one of which is complete, supreme owner of the means of production, and the other or completely deprived of them, or merely acts slave owner.Therefore, some members of the public have the opportunity to assign a portion of the labor of others currently.With the emergence of private property and the distribution was carried out not by belonging to this genus, as it was at the beginning of human history, in the early stages of the primitive communal system, and not on the number of labor invested, as it was at the end of the existence of the tribal system, and on the property,that is, depending on what owned by members of the public.
Thus one who owned much property, and received more no matter how much work he put into the cause.
Transformed into a family of the owner, its assets, including property, formerly owned by his wife, the husband began to act as the breadwinner of children and wives, and they - as his dependents, regardless of who actually maintained the family, forthrough one's labor - the head of the family or themselves members - the family lived.He was considered the breadwinner simply because he was the owner of the means of production.The position of women has deteriorated sharply, it has become virtually disfranchised domestic slave.
establishment of wealth inheritance relations sharply posed the problem of biological paternity.The man was now very interested in the fact that the children were his wife was his children.Hence there laws requiring women to preserve their virginity until marriage and be faithful to her husband in marriage.Treason wife has been regarded as a grave sin, and for such offenses, even the Catholic Church allowed to dissolve marriages.In some countries, and the state became to protect the rights of men: in particular, even in the middle of the XIX century in France infidelity of the wife could be punished by imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years.
But in principle, if the monogamous form of marriage in patriarchal relations between the sexes existed as to equality and women could have only one husband, and a man might have only one wife.In reality, however, this equation has always had formal character.First of all, based on the principle "can endure - slyubitsya" the voice of a woman is not already listened when issuing her marriage.In addition, immediately after the occurrence of monogamous marriage, a man in a slave society had the right to enter into contact with their slaves.Born from the children of such a relationship does not legally have a father, but they were considered to be his property, that is owned by a slave owner."It is the existence of slavery side by side with monogamy - wrote Engels - the presence of a young beautiful female slaves who are at the disposal of men, gave monogamy from the very beginning of its specific nature, making it monogamy only for women but not for men."In addition, there was also the Institute of courtesans, hetaerism (extreme. It is a form of its prostitution).This further contributed to the violation of monogamous men.
However, in fairness it must be said that women, too, did not remain in debt.Engels quipped that although "men won over women, but to crown winners generously took losers.Close to monogamy and hetaerism unavoidable social phenomenon became adultery, prohibited strictly punishable, but ineradicable. "
As for the workers, and especially the working class, where the woman is from the marriage was involved in the process of material production, it was no longer izhdivenkoy husband.This made it more economically equal with her husband, and the marriage in this case was not so much a patriarchal, monogamous as egalitarian, equal for both spouses.Recently, such a marriage, regardless of the social system, is becoming more common in the whole of humanity, in all segments of the population.
In our country adopted in 1918 a decree "On the introduction of equal pay for equal work for women and men" committed to economic discrimination against women.Decrees "On civil marriage, about children and about conducting books of acts of state", "divorce" (1917) and other documents of the family were based on principles such as monogamy (prohibition of marriages with persons who are already married)equality of spouses with regard to property and relationships in the family, bound material support to disabled family members, and so on. d. The current state of the state regulation of family relations in our country in more detail in the second edition highlights section.