Methods of diagnosis of marital relations
One of the acute problems of family counseling - to complete, objective, sufficient information on marital and family situation of the client.From this information depends on the accuracy of the diagnosis, the choice of methods and directions of correctional work and aid effectiveness.Gathering information suggests the presence of a consultant particular model of marriage and family, potential sources of instability.Conceptual installation serve as a consultant to streamline the information received from the client.However, the theory of the family and marriage is still far from complete.This leads to significant discrepancies in the methods and the nature of the collected information, its interpretation and use.
We have attempted to make the collection of information about the couple program.As can be seen, this is the information in different combinations and interpretations used by most practitioners.Points programs include holistic aspects of the marital relationship.Undoubtedly, when working with a
emphasize that the program is designed to survey the married couple rather than a family as a whole.The couple - a central element of the family as a small group.family stability, its development, well-being, educational potential and many other characteristics essentially depend on the characteristics of the couple.But it would be a stretch to reduce family problems to marital problems and look at them cause family problems in all cases without exception.
The proposed program includes nine items, which we characterize in the following aspects: the meaning and value received for each item of marriage characteristics, their impact on the well-being of marriage, the possible methods and techniques for measuring these characteristics.
1. Socio-economic and demographic characteristics.
These figures are taken into account in many sociological and demographic research, proved their effect on the stability of marriage.Among them, most often distinguished: housing conditions (size and comfort of the home), household income (amount and method of distribution), length of marriage, age of spouses and the difference in age, education and occupation of the spouses, the number and age of children.A large number of studies discuss that there is no way, shows an ambiguous relationship of these indicators with the characteristics of the family.The trends we can talk about the positive impact on the marriage of good material conditions (apartments and family income), a significant length of marriage, age of approximate equality of spouses or older (3-7 years) age of the husband, the higher education of the spouses, the lack of difference in the level of education, the number of children from one to four.Influence of inverse values of these characteristics are not so clearly, so is not always valid conclusions about the troubles of the family without children, in poor material conditions, and so on. D. This is understandable if we take into account that the social characteristics of the family are responsible for its well-being is not right, and refractedthrough internal conditions.The adverse effect of objective factors can be offset by the impact of domestic sources of family integration:.. Conjugal compatibility and harmony, marital power of feelings, a strong culture of relations, etc.
With regard to obtaining the social characteristics of the methods, the sufficient survey, analysis of the available documents.
2. Premarital relations.
Accounting premarital relations are rarely used in the analysis of marital problems.However, the practice of counseling shows that in the premarital period often originate difficulties in the future directly or indirectly manifest in marriage.Therefore, the history of premarital analysis is useful for understanding the current state of relations.
We have published data and a study of premarital 60 stories have been generalized.Surveyed the pair with the experience of two years, the report used a retrospective method.
The results allowed to conclude that the fate of marriage reflects the following characteristics: a place and a situation dating, the first impression of each other (positive, negative, ambivalent, indifferent), the duration of the period of courtship, the initiator of the marriage proposal (male, female, other stakeholders), while pondering a marriage proposal, the situation of registration of marriage.
established that a positive value for the marriage have the following facts premarital history: mutual positive first impression of each other, the friendliness of the situation of work or study, the period of courtship from one to one and a half years, the manifestation of a marriage proposal initiative on the part of men, the adoption of a marriage proposal aftershort (up to two weeks) deliberation, support marriage wedding celebration.
Special compensatory measures require such features of pre-marital relations, such as: a negative first impression of each other, a short (up to six months) or long (over three years) during courtship, disapproval of the choice of family or relatives, a manifestation of direct or indirect initiative on the part of women(stimulated or provoked by the proposal), a long deliberation the marriage proposal.In each case it is possible to discover the causes of these facts characterizing premarital relations.Apparently, the effect of these causes continues to marriage, appearing in the subject or the conflict.
Features premarital period revealed in a conversation or a special interview.
3. family microenvironment.
family microenvironment is important for its stabilization.The content and form bonds with historically volatile environment.For the modern urban family is characterized by two trends: a decline in the frequency and duration of contact with the environment and a high need for support from the environment.The fact that kinship, neighborly, friendly relations are a source of household, moral and emotional support are the channel relevant information to help adapt the initialization of family members, serve as a source of household services (help in the care of children, the sick, and so on. N.) are the conduits of the experience of family life, necessary for leisure.
absence of links with the environment, isolation from family and society of a particular microenvironment has a negative impact on its stability and prosperity.In an isolated family of all household burden falls on both spouses.This requires them to capacity to a rigid coordination of high agreement on all matters of family life, the psycho-physical endurance, awareness of personal responsibility and duty.Only under these circumstances, an isolated family can cope with current loads without unnecessary tension and conflict.
However, spouses who live together with their families and not feel, can be a problem a couple of aid deficiency.In this case, the causes of the conflict may lie in the field of household or other form of generation incompatibilities, differences in lifestyle and way of life.
The best option - partial separation of families: living apart from the family to preserve the autonomy of, but in close proximity to them.Such conditions allow families to avoid domestic conflicts and at the same time to provide and receive prompt assistance from relatives.
To investigate family contacts with the environment we have developed a profile "Family Contact".It allows you to get the following data: composition of the microenvironment (relatives, neighbors, friends, colleagues), the frequency of contacts with different representatives of the microenvironment, kind assistance received from these individuals (economic, personal services, moral and emotional support, exchange of experience, organization of leisure).Questionnaire can be used in two ways: for the study of the objective situation and the desired option for research relationship with the environment.A comparison of the paintings helps to identify the point of distress in the relationship with the microenvironment.
4. Stage marriage.
not questioned the value of family development stage for the relationship in the literature.In this case we are not talking about the experience of marriage, namely, the stage of development.Counseling Practice shows that for each stage is characterized by its typical problems, relationship structure, way of life and way of life of the family.
However, the problem of stages of family life has been little studied.The most commonly used division into six stages of the life cycle:
1) premarital period;
2) the family to the birth of children;
3) family with children of pre-school;
4) family with school-age children;
5) Family with older children;
6) after separation of the family of adult children.
Possible problems premarital period is already considered.For the second stage, the most difficult to develop a common characteristic of family life, disappointment in each other as a result of better recognition, conflicts about the roles, relationships with family, material and economic problems.In the third stage the determining factor in family life becomes child care.Possible problems: lack of help in the upbringing of the child of her husband, the concentration of the wife on the child at the expense of relations with her husband.Families with young children are most frequent conflicts over child-rearing techniques, the role of mother and father in a child's life, as well as the problem of marital fidelity and sexual relations.Problems of elderly couple are very poorly studied.Some evidence suggests that they are derived from the weakening of social ties, including their own children, the fear of loneliness and poor health.
Unfortunately, the available material does not allow to develop a tool for the analysis of marriage in relation to the stage of development.Therefore, the identification of common problems is possible in the course of free conversation.
5. Evaluation of welfare relations.
useful for diagnostic purposes, an integral assessment of the level of well-being of marriage, which allows to judge the severity of the violation of relations.For this purpose we use a choice of three scales: OED (differential evaluation of relations), Burgess scale, a subjective scale of marriage satisfaction.Each of the scales to evaluate the relationship continuum "prosperous - disadvantaged" in terms of quantity.
Scale OED developed AN Volkova modeled semantic differentials.It contains a number of polar type definitions:.. "Warm - cold", "strong - fragile", etc. of the subject is invited to assess the relationship, choosing evaluation between these poles.Summation score provides a general assessment of well-being in a relationship a continuous scale from 0 to 90 points.
Scale Burgess has two sections: the first part (36 questions) evaluates the significant aspects of the marital relationship (feelings, understanding of each other, relationships with family, values, and so forth.), The second part is a scale for the assessment of the personal shortcomings spouse.The scale is named the author of the scale of adaptation in marriage.As it can be prepared from less than 579 to 720 or more points.The author singled out nine levels of fitness: extreme neprisposoblen undoubtedly neprisposoblen;neprisposoblen;perhaps neprisposoblen;it is difficult to say anything definite;more or less suited;adapted;undoubtedly adapted;extremely well suited.Each of the levels correspond to specified intervals of points.
subjective satisfaction scale developed by marriage TM Trapeznikova.It contains five items to be assessed in a scale one: the strength of the marriage;a subjective sense of happiness;fulfillment of expectations of social groups;the full development of the personality of the spouses;the achievement of family integration.
The main advantage of these scales - to provide quantitative estimates.The scales also make it possible to identify the most problematic points of relations qualitatively analyze the answers to individual questions.They are easy to use, does not occupy a lot of time, clear the respondent.
specified scale demand sincerity of answers, so they can be present after the establishment of a trusting relationship with the customer.Scales are available to each spouse separately, then analyzed the difference in scores obtained.Significant divergence estimates - a sign of non-reciprocity relations.Husband, estimates the lower - the potential initiator of the conflict, the opposition break.This spouse in need of special correctional work, a deeper study of his claims, attitudes and motives.
Despite some formal assessment of the level of general well-being of marriage, it has two important indicators: the risk of a given pair (possibility of the collapse of the marriage) and initiator of the potential disruption of relations.
6. Evaluation of selected phenomena of marital relations.
At the level of everyday consciousness and behavior of marital relations are manifested in such phenomena as mutual understanding, its adequacy, mutual respect and emotional acceptance, the level of conflict, family-role coordination.As a rule, it is in these terms of customers formulate their own problems.Also in the family therapy, these characteristics serve as indicators of development and integration of the family group and are subject to therapeutic intervention.Correctional work is directed to the improvement of these characteristics:.. Improving mutual understanding, conflict reduction, etc. The causes of the negative phenomena of state relations may be different.But in any case, they should be subjected to therapeutic correction.These characteristics are used to assess the effectiveness of therapy for not only a family, but also with other groups.
To measure the phenomena relations, we use the following techniques: questionnaires PEA, PMA, "Conflicts" and the test of family relations (FBT) and test T. Leary.Other authors use scales attractions, options goniometer special questionnaires.
questionnaire designed PEA AN Volkova for the diagnosis of three phenomena relations: understanding of the partner, the partner of emotional appeal, and respect for your partner.Each scale contains 15 questions.Scale understanding gives an indication of the presence of the customer the image of a partner, which allows him to behave properly towards him.Emotional appeal is measured near projective questions, allowing to judge the attraction to a partner, acceptance of his personal manifestations.Scale respect to judge the extent of authority, fatal, Reference wife in the eyes of another.
Questionnaire RRR (role expectations and claims married) offered AN Volkova for the study of family units.The questionnaire contains seven scales, allowing to establish a hierarchy of family values and ideas about the distribution of roles in their implementation.Family values - are aspects of family life, which reflect the basic features of the modern family: the education of children, the organization of domestic consumption, intimacy, emotional support, leisure, partnership, aesthetic values.Answers interviewee allow us to establish the importance of these aspects for his family life.In the hierarchy of a happy couple of family values should be similar.
Questionnaire OPD can also set the role structure of the couple who and to what extent takes the initiative and responsibility for the execution of certain functions of the family.If the role of consistent, we are talking about the role adequacy of spouses.Prosperous couple have a high value for a role.
Questionnaire "Conflicts" designed by G. LEROM in the department for the study of neuroses and psychotherapy University them.
Marx in the GDR, is adapted to the Institute.Bekhterev.The technique is a set of 49 questions and six variants of answers to them.It allows you to judge the degree of the individual strength in three areas: industrial, household, partner, conjugal.Also displays the total index conflict respondent.The questionnaire allows to establish the nature and sources of conflict in the couple, their degree of severity, conflict impact on marriage satisfaction.
T. Leary test used to diagnose the understanding, the ideal image of the partner.It is a set of character statements, the severity of which in yourself and your partner are asked to evaluate.