Risk factors that cause divorce

Currently, in many countries, including in some regions of the Soviet Union, the instability of marriage has become a significant social problem.These regions are also the republic of the Soviet Baltic states.For example, in the Estonian SSR for the past several years the number of divorces per year is about 40% of the prison population in the same year marriages.

In macroscopic terms the reasons for this phenomenon are known.It is a scientific and technological revolution and the associated emancipation of women, economic independence of almost all adults, intensive migration.It is well known that at present most of the disappeared former economic, religious and other factors to ensure the stability of marriage and the family.However, in terms of development of a family microsociological mechanism (as in the positive direction and its gradual destruction) is poorly understood.The purpose of this article is to clarify some of the circumstances related to the disintegration of the family.

One of the main objectives of the study group families of Tartu State University is studying the conditions for guaranteeing the proper functioning of the family, as well as clarification of the circumstances causing its destruction.three sample study, a representative for the Republic held in the Estonian SSR.

In 1972 surveyed are getting married in the registry office 7 different regions and cities of Estonia.Each questionnaire included 150 questions (350 signs) on the socio-demographic

characteristics, estimates of the parental home, the nature of his and future husband, value orientation, role expectations, and so on. D. As a result, in 1150 correctly completed questionnaires were received (575 pairs)which are then processed by computer.The published results of this study are the empirical basis of this article.

In 1975, in the same registry office and relevant people's courts were interviewed divorcing.Questionnaires for them contained basically the same questions that were on the form for entering into marriage, plus the economic and social characteristics of the former family, mutual evaluation and self-assessment of the dynamics of behavior and changes in spouses of personality, motivation of divorce (of 250 questions, or 700 signs).The volume of processed material - 950 profiles, of which 62% are filled by women, and 38% - men.150 ex-couples were interviewed.Note that the average length of marriage was 8.4 years (median 6.1 years).One third of all divorcing lived for the past 1-2 years apart.A detailed study of their profiles allows you to check the validity of the responses received.The published results of this study form the second empirical source of this article.

comparing these results poll allows us to determine the circumstances affecting the breakdown of the marriage.It should be noted that there is not just one or a few dominant reasons for divorce.There is a whole set of factors that increase the probability of failure of marriage - divorce, so-called risk factors.These factors can be divided into three groups.

1. Risk factors associated with the first type of persons contemplating marriage.This includes characteristics such as their origin, the impact of the parental home, some socio-demographic characteristics, psychological characteristics, physical and mental health, and so on. D. Knowledge of all these factors makes it possible to predict the probability of a successful marriage for each person separately.

significance of these factors for family life was repeatedly emphasized by many Soviet and foreign researchers.

2. the second type of risk factors related to the primary study compatibility couple, dating terms, characteristics premarital period, the motivation of marriage.Note that the second type of risk factors are not independent of the risk factors of the first type: they can increase their action and in some cases even to compensate for them.Knowledge of a second type of risk factors allows to predict the success of a marriage (and to some extent even to influence it) for each particular pair at the time of their marriage.

3. Risk Factors third type occur within the joint life of the couple.These include issues related to the economic base and living conditions, as well as the discrepancy between role expectations and their implementation.Basically, the third type of risk factors identified secondary incompatibility, inadequate behavior of spouses, family conflicts, sexual disharmony, alcoholism.The third type of risk factors to some extent depend on the risk factors of the first and second types, but not determined by them, and to a large extent conditioned by the specific circumstances of family life.

Knowledge of a third type of risk factors can not only predict the success of a joint life at every stage of the life of each individual of the couple, but also to some extent to focus the social life in the desired direction (with the help of family counseling).

Risk Factors of the first type.Among the risk factors of the first type, ie. E. The circumstances associated with the availability and readiness for family life of individuals, the most important is the origin of single-parent families.According to our data, 67% of persons entering into marriage before the age of 16 were raised in an intact family, and among divorcing appropriate percentage - 57. The reason for this is probably the lack of training for family life and the low score marriage pupils incomplete family.On the influence of this factor indicated by many researchers.

Similarly, and also a significant risk factor is the cold and hostile atmosphere in the parental home.In such a situation, according to our data, grew 3% to marry and 7% of divorces.

interesting is the effect of the place of birth.In the Estonian SSR, as well as throughout the world, bred in the cities than in the countryside.However, among divorcing were more people who were born in the village and less born in big cities than in marrying (from divorcing born in the village of 48% and in the big cities - 34% of the intending spouses - respectively 45 and 38%).Therefore, migration from the countryside to the city, causing a weakening of social control over the young person is a significant risk factor.

Well-known risk factor is the wrong age for marriage.Couples in which at least one of the partners at the time of registration of marriage was significantly below or above the optimum age, relatively less stable.Our material shows a particularly significant impact is too late marriage: divorcing, have lived together for more than 3 years old, married an average of 2.4 years later, divorcing, who lived together 3-10 years - an average of 06 years later, and divorcing, have lived together for more than 10 years - an average of 1.6 years later than the average.And it is interesting that 30% of divorcing considered unsuitable marriage age a significant cause of the destruction of marriage, but only 5% believed that they were too old, and 25% - they were married too young.

All other socio-demographic characteristics, such as the formation of the couple and their parents, social status, number of family members, and so on. E., Have approximately the same distribution in marrying and divorcing, so there is no reason to believe their divorce risk factors.

characters were studied in some detail how marrying and divorcing.For this questionnaire contained in measurement unit identity Kettellom created, which consists of 32 characters.Each grounds matched pair of personality traits (eg, bold - Coward), connected by a 5-point scale.To marry and evaluated yourself and your future spouse;divorcing gave the corresponding estimates for the date of the marriage (in retrospect), and for the considered moment.Validity of estimates was checked by factor analysis.

to marry appreciated yourself and your future spouse are mainly positive, though evaluation data spouses, slightly higher than the self-assessments.Quite similar, but slightly lower were retrospective evaluation of divorcing.According to self-assessments, divorcing at the time of marriage were more selfish, less brave, sociable and demanding than the average marry.Retrospective assessment spouse divorcing data, significantly lower than the estimates of the future spouse, data marry.Still interesting to note that the retrospective assessment spouse divorcing data, in general, positive, or neutral, only one of the spouses at the beginning of marriage is another nerve.Also, women indicated that their husbands were already prone to instability, impracticality and frivolity.

Thus, there is no reason to believe that divorcing already during the marriage were in a sense "bad character", although some of the features in their characters (selfishness, nervousness, instability) may actually make it more difficult to live together and to be a divorce risk factors.

Risk Factors of the second type.If the first type of risk factors related to the individual, the second type of risk factors inherent in a pair and are associated with its primary compatibility, circumstances and conditions of love and marriage.

primary (and secondary) the compatibility of the couple to a certain extent depends on the compliance of various socio-demographic characteristics of spouses.Obviously, the heterogeneity of such indicators may prove to be a factor of risk of divorce.

In the course of our research it became clear that the discrepancy between the spouses age really is a significant risk factor, and the effect of this factor is evident for quite a long time.For ages, the correlation coefficient between the marrying was 0.71, and for getting divorced, lived together up to 3 years, from 3 to 10 years and 10 years, corresponding to the ratio stood at 0.73, 0.46 and 0.41.

In the study sites dating we could not find significant differences between marrying and divorcing: only (contrary to expectations) of divorcing residence in average occurred more frequently (20 and 11%), and a cafe or restaurant - less (respectively 21 and26%) than that of the intending spouses.

duration period dating significantly associated with the stability of marriage: for too short a period dating future spouses do not have enough opportunities to know each other, to adapt to each other, to develop common ideas about family life.Therefore too short a period dating is a significant risk factor.Too long a period as love is associated with a reduction in emotional status.

According to our data, the average period dating from divorcing lasted 1 year.Among them, 40% said too short a period of dating;these people knew each other before the marriage six months on average (12% - even less than 3 months).But 7% of divorcing pointed to too long a period of dating (on average 3 years).

remaining divorcing considered normal duration of the period dating an average of 1.5 years, as well as in the middle and getting married.

degree of mutual adaptation depends not only on the duration of premarital period, but also by the closeness of the contacts during this period.Note that among divorcing were 28% of the people who met before the marriage only once a week or less;among those marrying was 20%.Contact Tightness in premarital period significantly affects the knowledge of the nature of a future spouse.When asked if they knew at the time of marriage annoying traits of his future wife, the respondents gave the following answers (the dominant variant): Meet at least 1 time per week - did not know;encountered 1 time per week - know in part;meet more often - know.

very important preparation for marriage is of a general nature of relations in the premarital period;for normal relations in marriage involves a warm and cordial mutual relations of the future spouses to premarital period;it was 97% of the intending spouses, but divorcing corresponding percentage was only 80. So, about 5% of divorcing even the primary was insufficient compatibility.A similar picture was revealed and the relationship of domination-subordination, if of marrying 72% of couples in premarital period, always take into account the desires of each other, among divorcing couples such was only 42%.Note that these attributes are closely correlated: the very warm mutual relations often try to fulfill the desire of the partner, and when the cool relations - rather own.

The kit includes pre-marital relations and sexual relations.It is well known that in recent years attitudes towards premarital sex became more tolerant, and differences in this regard between marrying and divorcing almost was not.Men believed premarital sex permissible 70% of respondents, for women - 60%.Also in both arrays were practically the same percentage of people having premarital sexual experience: approximately 80% of men and 75% women.

Thus, no premarital sex, no rejection of them are not in the present conditions of risk factor for divorce.In this regard it should be noted that the expected child, which causes the so-called "forced marriage", to our knowledge, is not a factor in divorce risk, rather the opposite: if of marrying 41% believed the expected child important motive for marriage,divorcing it from such a motive indicated only 26%.

About divorcing cooler relations during the marriage and says analysis of the motivation of marriage.If you marry indicated love, friendship and care as important reasons of marriage, respectively, 95, 93 and 87% of cases, then divorcing the motives met in 60, 51 and 43% of cases.It should be noted that almost all divorcing motifs (both economic and ethical, including sympathy or given once a promise) are much rarer than the intending spouses.Note that divorcing marriages were less approved and the bride and groom parents: if not of all marriages are frowned upon by parents about 82%, then divorcing the percentage was only 37. In order to identify the causes of this phenomenon requires further study: whether these marriages doless motivated or is manifested estimates.

Risk Factors third type occur within the joint life of the couple.They relate to the incompatibility of the secondary, which is based on differences in the value orientations, the disparity of ideas about marital roles reality.Some general information about the effect of these factors can be obtained by comparing the values ​​of marriage, referred to marry, with the absence of these values ​​as a divorce motive declared divorcing (Table. 1), which shows the "ranking" of these symptoms in decreasing order of importance.Note that the divorce motives rather closely associated with marital values: rank correlation coefficient between the motives and values ​​equal to 0.82 for men and women - 0.62.

We now consider separately the circumstances connected with the factors of the third type of risk.

some basics of matrimonial compatibility and is the economic basis on which the family created.It should be noted that in very adverse conditions (for example, when a young family does not even have a separate room and they have to live separately) family as a micro-group can not be developed, and such conditions are very serious risk factor.The existence of such risk factor is confirmed by our studies: only 38% of divorcing had after marriage his own apartment, 6% lived

Marriage values ​​and divorce motives related to the lack of relevant values ​​(in descending order of importance)

in a corner of the commonrooms and approximately 10% of the partners have lived separately.The proportion of those who are at the beginning of marriage, living together with their parents, among divorcing was significantly higher than among the intending spouses (respectively 49 and 32%).More than half (57%) were divorcing after marriage living space for at least 6 m2 per 1 family member.Among marrying such people accounted for only 31%.

Since living conditions for joint life improved (by the end of marriage is already about 60% of divorced live in a separate apartment), the motif of "bad living conditions" is relatively rare (15% of divorcing).