Crohn's disease symptoms

August 12, 2017 17:51 | Genetic Diseases

Crohn's Disease - is an inflammatory bowel disease that affects all of its layers. Crohn's disease (CD) caused damage to all the membrane, forming a wall of the intestine, mainly segmental lesions, exciting one or more portions of the digestive tract along its entire length.However, often it is localized in the ileum or colon.Morphologically this inflammatory process is characterized by the presence of granulomas and the defeat of the local lymph formations.

Crohn's disease, also known as regional ileitis - a chronic inflammation of the intestinal wall, often the final part of the small intestine or colon.Inflammation captures the deeper layers of the intestinal wall, can form ulcers and abscesses.Ulcers can completely destroy the wall, creating abnormal passages (fistulas) to other parts of the intestine to other organs such as the bladder or skin.Deep cracks may also develop in and around the anus.The inflammation may lead to thickening of the intestinal wall and, eventually, in complete blockade

of the intestine.Symptoms of Crohn's disease appear in the form of attacks, alternating with periods of normal health.Some people have only one or two attacks, and then the recovery occurs;in other attacks recur throughout life.

reason

disease Epidemiological studies conducted in Sweden showed that the primary incidence increased from 3.5 to 6.0 per 100 000 population, and the prevalence of Crohn's disease was 75.2 per 100 000 population.In 25% of the disease is diagnosed in individuals under 21 years.Manifestations of the disease

for Crohn's disease is characterized by abdominal distension and rumbling, diarrhea, cramping.The patient is reduced weight.In the anus area often form fistulas.Compounded disease intestinal obstruction, abscesses and intestinal contractions.By extraintestinal lesions that are characteristic of Crohn's disease include: inflammatory diseases of the eye, skin and joint disease, osteoporosis, liver disease and biliary tract.

Adolescents Crohn's disease occurs significantly more often than in children.There are reports of Crohn's disease in infants.Boys fall ill twice as often as girls.

Crohn's disease can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract - from the mouth to the anus;with no significant differences in the affected area in children and adults.Most patients bowel is involved in the process as separate segments, each separated normal colon section.It is noted that, if the inflammation is initially localized in the ileum, it is possible to further spread of the line while the secondary involvement of a rare process in the small intestine.

disease appears cramping abdominal pain, diarrhea.Often, there are extra-intestinal manifestations: fever, lack of appetite, stunted growth, weakness, pain in the joints.With the defeat of thin bowel pain localized in the umbilical and right iliac regions.Possible tenesmus (empty, painful urge to defecate).In children bleeding observed in 30%, but they are never massive.Often bleeding is the first symptom of Crohn's disease.Violation of the integrity of the gut wall to hit its contents into the free abdominal cavity is rare, usually the process ends with the formation of ulcers.Blood in the stool is present rare, although some patients with intestinal bleeding can be quite strong.Delayed growth and sexual development is the more pronounced than before the onset of illness.As one of the features of the disease in children, this symptom occurs in 25-30% of patients.

interfere with the absorption of simple sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, trace elements.The frequency of bowel movements up to 3-6 hours, and if the chair is observed more frequently, it usually indicates a lesion of the colon.In some patients, a slight diarrhea, and in the period of acute inflammation may be replaced by constipation.

Symptoms

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Diagnostics

diseases are diagnosed by means of X-ray examination with barium, in the course of which such indication is detected as "cobblestones".Work is also rektoromano- and colonoscopy.Almost always performed a biopsy (a piece of mucosal sampling for microscopic analysis).

decisive in the diagnosis of disease belongs to X-ray (double contrast method), and endoscopy (sigmoidoscopy ikolonoskopiya) research.Radiographic manifestations are similar in adults and children and do not have a direct correlation with the severity of the clinical course of Crohn's disease.

enema treatment of disease

Patients with this diagnosis is assigned to a diet with increasing amounts of protein, dairy products is recommended to exclude.Because of drugs for the treatment of Crohn's disease using drugs of sulfasalazine and glucocorticoids.Some doctors also prescribe immunosuppressants.Surgical treatment is not aimed at the treatment of Crohn's disease as such, but to fight with emerging complications.

disease Treatment should be comprehensive, include diet therapy, psychotherapy, complex matched exercise.In the acute phase of the disease show prednisolone and azathioprine.Effective treatments for Crohn's disease is not present.Surgery is performed rarely, since 90% of the possible exacerbation of the disease.Indications for surgery in Crohn's disease are cicatricial stenosis and formation of external intestinal fistulas.As a result of inflammation of a bowel segment primarily develops its restriction that when resistance to conservative treatment is transformed into cicatricial stenosis.The indicator of this transition - the emergence suprastenoticheskogo proximal extension, which is a sign of decompensation of the contractility of the intestinal wall, and a harbinger of obstructive ileus.

When disease of the small intestine Crohn perform a resection of the affected department or strikturoplastiku.Selecting the method of operation is determined by the extent of the defeat of the intestine.Strikturoplastika possible only with small strictures up to 4-5 cm.

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Prevention

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